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M48
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90mm Gun Tank M48 Patton 481-5
M48: General
Date of first acceptance April 1952
Manufacturers
  • Chrysler Corp.
  • Ford Motor Co.
  • Fisher Tank Arsenal
Crew
4 men:
  • Commander in turret right rear
  • Gunner in turret right front
  • Loader in turret left rear
  • Driver in hull center front
M48: Dimensions
Combat weight 99,000lbs
45,000kg
Height over AAMG 127.6"
324.1cm
Length without gun, with fenders 274.3"
676.7cm
Gun overhang forward 72.6"
184cm
Width over tracks 143.0"
363.2cm
Tread 115.0"
292.1cm
Ground clearance 16.5"
41.9cm
Fire height ~79"
~200cm
Turret ring diameter 85.0"
216cm
Ground pressure, zero penetration 11.2psi
.786kg/cm²
M48: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
90mm Gun M41 M87 in turret 60 rounds 360°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
4°/sec
.50cal M2HB MG Flexible in turret AA mount 500 rounds 360°
(manual)
-- Manual --
.30cal M1919A4E1 MG Coaxial to 90mm gun 5900 rounds 360°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
4°/sec
Rangefinder
Stereoscopic T46E1
M48: Armor
Assembly
Welding
Hull
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Upper front 4.33"
11.0cm
60°
Lower front 4.0" to 2.4"
10cm to 6.1cm
53°
Front sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear sides 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Upper rear 1.38"
3.51cm
30°
Lower rear 1.0"
2.5cm
60°
Top 2.25"
5.72cm
90°
Front floor 1.5"
3.8cm
90°
Center floor 1.25"
3.18cm
90°
Rear floor 0.5"
1.3cm
90°
Turret
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Gun shield 4.5"
11cm
30°
Front 7.0" equivalent
18cm equivalent
Sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Top 1.0"
1.3cm
90°
M48: Automotive
Engine Continental AV-1790-5B, -7, -7B, or -7C; 12 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° vee gasoline
Horsepower Net: 704@2800rpm
Gross: 810@2800rpm
Torque Net: 1440 ft-lb@2000rpm
Gross: 1610@2200rpm
Fuel capacity 200gal
757L
Transmission General Motors CD-850-4A or -4B, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse
Steering Mechanical, steering wheel
Brakes Multiple disc
M48: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Torsion bar 6 independently sprung dual/track 5 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
11-tooth rear drive Dual compensating at front of track;
dual auxiliary track tension wheel behind last road wheel
On first 2 and last road wheels/track
M48: Track
T96
Center guide, double pin, rubber backed steel
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
T97
Center guide, double pin, rubber chevron
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
M48: Performance
Max level road speed 28mph sustained
45kph sustained
Max trench 102"
259cm
Max sideslope 40% Max grade 60%
Max vertical obstacle 36"
91cm
Min turning diameter Pivot
Max fording depth 48"
120cm
Cruising range ~70mi
~110km


The M48 used large castings for its turret and hull, and these gave the vehicle its characteristic look: the turret was elliptical, and the bow resembled the nose of a frog. M48 had a small, oval driver's hatch and the .50cal M2HB machine gun mounted at the commander's cupola was exposed. The drivers of M48s controlled the tanks through an aircraft-style steering wheel, instead of the single wobble stick control found on the M46 and M47. Early M48s had a Y-shaped muzzle brake, while later vehicles featured a T-shaped design. Late-production tanks also were fitted with an infrared periscope for the driver. One hundred twenty M48 hulls were found to be ballistically deficient, and were therefore used for training only. These vehicles were designated M48C. Short range was a problem for the M48, and four jettisonable 55gal (210L) fuel drums could be mounted on the rear deck to increase the tank's range to about 135 miles (217km).

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90mm Gun Tank M48A1 Patton 481-6
M48A1: General
Manufacturer
  • Chrysler Corp.
  • Ford Motor Co.
  • Fisher Tank Arsenal
Crew
4 men:
  • Commander in turret right rear
  • Gunner in turret right front
  • Loader in turret left rear
  • Driver in hull center front
M48A1: Dimensions
Combat weight 104,000lbs
47,200kg
Height over cupola periscope 121.6"
308.9cm
Length without gun, with fenders 274.3"
696.7cm
Gun overhang forward 72.6"
184cm
Width over tracks 143.0"
363.2cm
Tread 115.0"
292.1cm
Ground clearance 16.5"
41.9cm
Fire height ~79"
~200cm
Turret ring diameter 85.0"
216cm
Ground pressure, zero penetration 11.8psi
.828kg/cm²
M48A1: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
90mm Gun M41 M87 in turret 60 rounds 360°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
4°/sec
.50cal M2HB MG Cupola M1 on turret 500 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
-- Manual and hydraulic --
.30cal M1919A4E1 MG Coaxial to 90mm gun 5900 rounds 360°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
4°/sec
Rangefinder
Stereoscopic T46E1
Night vision
Infrared periscope T41 for driver
M48A1: Armor
Assembly
Welding
Hull
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Upper front 4.33"
11.0cm
60°
Lower front 4.0" to 2.4"
10cm to 6.1cm
53°
Front sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear sides 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Upper rear 1.38"
3.51cm
30°
Lower rear 1.0"
2.5cm
60°
Top 2.25"
5.72cm
90°
Front floor 1.5"
3.8cm
90°
Rear floor 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
Turret
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Gun shield 4.5"
11cm
30°
Front 7.0" equivalent
18cm equivalent
Sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Top 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
M48A1: Automotive
Engine Continental AV-1790-5B, -7, -7B, or -7C; 12 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° vee gasoline
Horsepower Net: 704@2800rpm
Gross: 810@2800rpm
Torque Net: 1440 ft-lb@2000rpm
Gross: 1610@2200rpm
Fuel capacity 200gal
757L
Transmission General Motors CD-850-4A or -4B, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse
Steering Mechanical, steering wheel
Brakes Multiple disc
M48A1: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Torsion bar 6 independently sprung dual/track 5 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
11-tooth rear drive Dual compensating at front of track;
dual auxiliary track tension wheel behind last road wheel
On first 2 and last road wheels/track
M48A1: Track
T97E2
Center guide, double pin, rubber chevron
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
M48A1: Performance
Max level road speed 28mph sustained
45kph sustained
Max trench 102"
259cm
Max sideslope 40% Max grade 60%
Max vertical obstacle 36"
91cm
Min turning diameter Pivot
Max fording depth 48"
120cm
Cruising range ~70mi
~110km


M48A1 incorporated a larger driver's hatch and a new M1 cupola for the commander. The cupola engulfed the rear of the .50cal machine gun, and the weapon could therefore be loaded from inside the tank. The M1 cupola also had a periscope in the roof for all-round visibility. However, interior room was lacking in the cupola, and due to this the size of the machine gun ammunition box was severely limited.

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90mm Gun Tank M48A2 Patton 481-7
M48A2: General
Date of first acceptance 1956 Total acceptances 2328
Manufacturers
  • ALCO Products, Inc.
  • Chrysler Corp.
Crew
4 men:
  • Commander in turret right rear
  • Gunner in turret right front
  • Loader in turret left rear
  • Driver in hull center front
M48A2: Dimensions
Combat weight 105,000lbs
47,600kg
Height over cupola periscope 121.6"
308.9cm
Length without gun 270.5"
687.1cm
Gun overhang forward 71.3"
181cm
Width over tracks 143.0"
363.2cm
Tread 115.0"
292.1cm
Ground clearance 16.5"
41.9cm
Fire height ~79"
~200cm
Turret ring diameter 85.0"
216cm
Ground pressure, zero penetration 11.9psi
.835kg/cm²
M48A2: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
90mm Gun M41 M87 in turret 64 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and hydraulic)
4°/sec
.50cal M2HB MG Cupola M1 on turret 1360 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
-- Manual and hydraulic --
.30cal M73 MG Coaxial to 90mm gun 5950 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and hydraulic)
4°/sec
Rangefinder
Stereoscopic M13A1
Night vision
Infrared periscope M24 for driver
M48A2: Armor
Assembly
Welding
Hull
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Upper front 4.33"
11.0cm
60°
Lower front 4.0" to 2.4"
10cm to 6.1cm
53°
Front sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear sides 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Exhaust grille 1.0" equivalent
2.5cm equivalent
Lower rear 1.6" to 1.2"
4.1cm to 3.0cm
30° to 60°
Top 2.25"
5.72cm
90°
Front floor 1.5"
3.8cm
90°
Rear floor 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
Turret
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Gun shield 4.5"
11cm
30°
Front 7.0" equivalent
18cm equivalent
Sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Top 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
M48A2: Automotive
Engine Continental AVI-1790-8; 12 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° vee, fuel-injected gasoline
Horsepower Net: 690@2800rpm
Gross: 825@2800rpm
Torque Net: 1470 ft-lb@2200rpm
Gross: 1670@2200rpm
Fuel capacity 335gal
1270L
Transmission General Motors CD-850-5, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse
Steering Mechanical, steering wheel
Brakes Multiple disc
M48A2: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Torsion bar 6 independently sprung dual/track 3 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
11-tooth rear drive Dual compensating at front of track;
dual auxiliary track tension wheel behind last road wheel
On first 2 and last road wheels/track
M48A2: Track
T97E2
Center guide, double pin, rubber chevron
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
M48A2: Performance
Max level road speed 30mph sustained
48kph sustained
Max trench 102"
259cm
Max sideslope 40% Max grade 60%
Max vertical obstacle 36"
91cm
Min turning diameter Pivot
Max fording depth 40"
100cm
Cruising range ~160mi
~260km


M48A2 was powered by a more efficient fuel-injected version of Continental's V-12, and when coupled with the extra room for fuel tanks provided by the more compact design of this engine, the range of the M48A2 was greatly increased. The rear of the M48A2 hull was redesigned from a solid plate to one incorporating exhaust louvres, and the hull intake grilles on the each side of the rear deck surrounded a solid center area that was overtop of the exhaust tunnel. The infrared signature of the tank was reduced with this new arrangement. Compare this to M48 and M48A1, where the exhaust was discharged just behind the turret. The engine's air cleaners were also placed in the fighting compartment side of the engine bulkhead for easier maintenance. Suspension components of M48A2 also received an upgrade, since failures were noted in earlier tanks. The compensating idler wheel attachment was modified, a double bump spring replaced the single unit on the first road wheel arm, friction snubbers replaced the hydraulic shock absorbers on the tank. The second and fourth track return rollers were deleted. The driver received a larger steering wheel, and the transmission shifter was moved from behind the steering wheel to the floor on the driver's right. The M48A2 had only one personnel heater exhaust pipe exiting to the left of the roof of the driver's compartment, compared to the exhausts for two heaters on earlier tanks. M48A2 also introduced an improved turret control system, and the tank's fenders were changed from a round to a flat profile.

The 90mm gun tank M48A2C replaced the stereoscopic rangefinder with a more user-friendly M17 coincidence model. M48A2C also used a new ballistic drive which accounted for temperature fluctuations, a larger bore evacuator was fitted to the 90mm gun, and the metric system replaced English measurements as the basis of the tank's fire control system. The auxiliary track tensioning wheels were deleted from M48A2C. One thousand three hundred forty-four M48A2s were modified to M48A2C standard.


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90mm Gun Tank M48A3 Patton 481-7
M48A3: General
Date of first acceptance February 1963 Total acceptances 1019 converted from M48A1
Manufacturers
  • Anniston Army Depot
  • Red River Army Depot
Crew
4 men:
  • Commander in turret right rear
  • Gunner in turret right front
  • Loader in turret left rear
  • Driver in hull center front
M48A3: Dimensions
Combat weight 107,000lbs
48,500kg
Height over cupola periscope 129.3"
328.4cm
Length without gun 270.5"
687.1cm
Gun overhang forward 71.3"
181cm
Width over tracks 143.0"
363.2cm
Tread 115.0"
292.1cm
Ground clearance 16.5"
41.9cm
Fire height ~79"
~200cm
Turret ring diameter 85.0"
216cm
Ground pressure, zero penetration 12.1psi
.849kg/cm²
M48A3: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
90mm Gun M41 M87A1 in turret 62 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and hydraulic)
4°/sec
.50cal M2HB MG Cupola M1 on turret 600 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
-- Manual and hydraulic --
.30cal M73 MG Coaxial to 90mm gun 5900 rounds 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and hydraulic)
4°/sec
Rangefinder
Coincidence M17A1
Night vision
Infrared periscope M24 for driver
M48A3: Armor
Assembly
Welding
Hull
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Upper front 4.33"
11.0cm
60°
Lower front 4.0" to 2.4"
10cm to 6.1cm
53°
Front sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear sides 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Exhaust grille 1.0" equivalent
2.5cm equivalent
Lower rear 1.6" to 1.2"
4.1cm to 3.0cm
30° to 60°
Top 2.25"
5.72cm
90°
Front floor 1.5"
3.8cm
90°
Rear floor 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
Turret
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Gun shield 4.5"
11cm
30°
Front 7.0" equivalent
18cm equivalent
Sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Top 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
M48A3: Automotive
Engine Continental AVDS-1790-2A; 12 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° vee, supercharged diesel
Horsepower Net: 643@2400rpm
Gross: 750@2400rpm
Torque Net: 1575 ft-lb@1750rpm
Gross: 1710@1800rpm
Fuel capacity 385gal
1460L
Transmission General Motors CD-850-6A, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse
Steering Mechanical, steering wheel
Brakes Multiple disc
M48A3: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Torsion bar 6 independently sprung dual/track 5 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
11-tooth rear drive Dual compensating at front of track On first 2 and last road wheels/track
M48A3: Track
T97E2
Center guide, double pin, rubber chevron
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
M48A3: Performance
Max level road speed 30mph sustained
48kph sustained
Max trench 102"
259cm
Max sideslope 40% Max grade 60%
Max vertical obstacle 36"
91cm
Min turning diameter Pivot
Max fording depth 48"
120cm
Cruising range ~300mi
~480km


The M48A3 modification fitted M48A1s with a diesel engine for greater fuel economy and reduced danger from fuel explosions. The rear deck was reworked to incorporate M60 grilles and exhaust louvres, and rear fender-mounted dry air cleaners were used instead of the oil bath models of the earlier gasoline engines. The auxiliary generator and engine were deleted, since the tank's diesel engine was more efficient than even the smaller auxiliary generator engine. The tank received the suspension upgrades of the M48A2. The personnel heater was changed again, to the type used in the M60, with its characteristic exhaust routed to the right (instead of left) side of the tank. The M48A3's fire extinguisher was improved as well. M48A3 was able to mount a xenon white light or infrared searchlight on the gun shield above the 90mm gun. The gun shield cover was waterproofed, and the crew was provided with a spall liner inside the tank. The fire control system of the M48A3 was also upgraded. The ammunition box for the .50cal MG was reduced from 100 to 50 rounds due to lack of space in the commander's cupola, but conditions were still cramped for the commander.

Bowen-McLaughlin-York, Inc., converted 578 tanks to M48A3 (Mod B) standard starting in 1967. The Mod B tanks differed from the earlier M48A3s by having armor framing running along the tops of the engine exhaust louvres, armor boxes surrounding the taillights, and an adapter ring incorporating vision blocks which raised the commander's cupola by about 5" (13cm). This, combined with a redesign of the cupola door, provided more room for the tank commander. M48A3 (Mod B) tanks also received driver's controls and gauges from the M60A1 tank, the fuel lines were relocated, and the suspension was modified by the addition of knock-out holes for the torsion bars and the redesign of the track return roller mud shields. Detachable headlights were mounted, and the fender telephone intercom was mounted in a higher position. Infrared fire control equipment was installed in the upgraded tanks as well. The upgrades that BMY installed were eventually retrofitted to all M48A3s, and the Mod B designation was subsequently deleted.


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105mm Gun Tank M48A5 Patton 48, late production1-7
M48A5: General
Date of first acceptance October 1975 Total acceptances 2069 converted from M48A1 and M48A3
Manufacturer Anniston Army Depot Crew
4 men:
  • Commander in turret right rear
  • Gunner in turret right front
  • Loader in turret left rear
  • Driver in hull center front
M48A5: Dimensions
Combat weight 108,000lbs
49,000kg
Height over cupola periscope 120.5"
306.1cm
Length without gun 270.5"
687.1cm
Gun overhang forward 95.9"
244cm
Width over tracks 143.0"
363.2cm
Tread 115.0"
292.1cm
Ground clearance 16.5"
41.9cm
Fire height 78.8"
200cm
Turret ring diameter 85.0"
216cm
Ground pressure, zero penetration 12.2psi
.856kg/cm²
M48A5: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
105mm Gun M68 M87 in turret 54 rounds
(19 ready)
360°
(manual and hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and hydraulic)
4°/sec
Two 7.62mm M60D MGs Flexible in turret AA mounts 10,000 rounds 360°
(manual)
-- Manual --
7.62mm M219 or M240 MG Coaxial to 90mm gun 360°
(manual and hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -9°
(manual and hydraulic)
4°/sec
Rangefinder
Coincidence M17B1C
Night vision
Infrared periscope M24 for driver
M48A5: Armor
Assembly
Welding
Hull
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Upper front 4.33"
11.0cm
60°
Lower front 4.0" to 2.4"
10cm to 6.1cm
53°
Front sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear sides 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Exhaust grille 1.0" equivalent
2.5cm equivalent
Lower rear 1.6" to 1.2"
4.1cm to 3.0cm
30° to 60°
Top 2.25"
5.72cm
90°
Front floor 1.5"
3.8cm
90°
Rear floor 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
Turret
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Gun shield 4.5"
11cm
30°
Front 7.0" equivalent
18cm equivalent
Sides 3.0" equivalent
7.6cm equivalent
Rear 2.0" equivalent
5.1cm equivalent
Top 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
M48A5: Automotive
Engine Continental AVDS-1790-2D; 12 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° vee, supercharged diesel
Horsepower Net: 643@2400rpm
Gross: 750@2400rpm
Torque Net: 1575 ft-lb@1750rpm
Gross: 1710@1800rpm
Fuel capacity 385gal
1460L
Transmission General Motors CD-850-6A, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse
Steering Mechanical, steering wheel
Brakes Multiple disc
M48A5: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Torsion bar 6 independently sprung dual/track 5 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
11-tooth rear drive Dual compensating at front of track On first 2 and last road wheels/track
M48A5: Track
T97E2
Center guide, double pin, rubber chevron
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
T142
Center guide, double pin, replaceable rubber pad
Width 28"
71cm
Pitch 6.94"
17.6cm
Shoes/track 78-79 Ground contact length 157.5"
400.1cm
M48A5: Performance
Max level road speed 30mph sustained
48kph sustained
Max trench 102"
259cm
Max sideslope 40% Max grade 60%
Max vertical obstacle 36"
91cm
Min turning diameter Pivot
Max fording depth 48"
120cm
Cruising range ~300mi
~480km


The increasing obsolencence of the 90mm gun forced another upgrade project onto the M48A3. M48A5 used the 105mm gun M68 of the M60 tank, and as many M60A1 components as possible were incorporated. The very large M1 cupola was replaced on M48A5s in August 1976 by an Israeli-designed model which was much shorter and used three periscopes mounted around a hatch that could be opened vertically a short distance to grant the tank commander protected visibility. M60D machine guns were also provided for the tank commander (replacing his .50cal machine gun) and loader, and main gun ammunition stowage was increased by 11 rounds to 54. M48A5s with the new features were for a time called M48A5PI (i.e., M48A5 Product Improved), but this designation was later returned to simply M48A5 as older vehicles were upgraded with the new features.

In December 1965, with series production of the 152mm gun-launcher M60A2 expected, it was planned to mount the newly-created surplus of M60 turrets on spare M48A3 hulls. These vehicles were to be called M48A4, however with the limited numbers of M60A2s actually produced, the M48A4 project was cancelled after only a few pilots had been converted.


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References

  1. Hunnicutt, R.P. Patton: A History of the American Main Battle Tank, volume 1. Navato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984.

  2. Crismon, Fred W. U.S. Military Tracked Vehicles. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1992.

  3. Miller, David. The Illustrated Directory of Tanks of the World. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Co., 2000.

  4. Decker, Oscar C. "The Patton Tanks: The Cold War Learning Series." Camp Colt to Desert Storm: The History of U.S. Armored Forces. Eds. George F. Hofmann, Donn A. Starry. USA: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.

  5. Foss, Chris. Modern Tanks. Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995.

  6. Myszka, John. Israeli Military Vehicles: The First 50 Years. Australia: Mouse House Enterprises, 1998.

  7. Federation of American Scientists. "M48 Patton." DOD 101. 7 Aug 1999. 4 Mar 2001 <http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/m48.htm>. DOD 101



Last updated 4 Dec 2013.

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© Copyright 2001-13 Chris Conners