90mm Gun Tank M47 Patton 471-7
M47: General
Date of first acceptance June 1951 Total acceptances 8576
Manufacturers
  • Detroit Tank Arsenal
  • American Locomotive Co.
Crew
5 men:
  • Commander in turret right rear
  • Gunner in turret right front
  • Loader in turret left rear
  • Driver in hull left front
  • Assistant driver in hull right front
M47: Dimensions
Combat weight 101,800lbs
46,170kg
Height over AAMG 131"
333cm
Length without gun 250.3"
635.8cm
Gun overhang forward 84.7"
215cm
Width over fenders 138.3"
351.3cm
Tread 110.0"
279.4cm
Ground clearance 18.5"
47.0cm
Fire height ~81"
~210cm
Turret ring diameter 73.0"
185cm
Ground pressure, zero penetration 14.7psi
1.03kg/cm²
M47: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
90mm Gun M36 M78 in Turret 71 rounds 360°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -10°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
4°/sec
.50cal M2HB MG Flexible in turret AA mount 1700 rounds 360°
(manual)
-- Manual --
.30cal M1919A4E1 MG Coaxial to 90mm gun 11,150 rounds 360°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
24°/sec +19° to -10°
(manual and electric-hydraulic)
4°/sec
.30cal M1919A4E1 MG Ball mount in right bow Manual -- Manual --
Night vision
Infrared periscope M19 for driver
Rangefinder
Stereoscopic M12
M47: Armor
Assembly
Welding
Hull
Rolled and cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Upper front 4.0"
10cm
60°
Lower front 3.5" to 3.0"
8.9cm to 7.6cm
53°
Front sides 3.0"
7.6cm
Rear sides 2.0"
5.1cm
Upper rear 2.0"
5.1cm
Lower rear 0.75"
2.0cm
62°
Top 0.88"
2.2cm
90°
Front floor 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
Rear floor 0.5"
1.3cm
90°
Turret
Cast homogeneous steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Gun shield 4.5"
11cm
60°
Front 4.0"
10cm
40°
Sides 2.5"
6.4cm
30°
Rear 3.0"
7.6cm
Top 1.0"
2.5cm
90°
M47: Automotive
Engine Continental AV-1790-5B, -7, or -7B; 12 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° vee gasoline
Horsepower Net: 704@2800rpm
Gross: 810@2800rpm
Torque Net: 1440 ft-lb@2000rpm
Gross: 1610 ft-lb@2200rpm
Fuel capacity 232gal
878L
Transmission General Motors CD-850-4, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse
Steering Mechanical, wobble stick
Brakes Multiple disc
M47: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Torsion bar 6 independently sprung dual/track 3 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
13-tooth rear drive Dual compensating at front of track;
dual track tension wheel behind last road wheel
On first 2 and last 2 road wheels/track
M47: Track
T80E6
Center guide, double pin, rubber backed steel
Width 23"
58cm
Pitch 6"
15cm
Shoes/track 86 Ground contact length Left side: 148.8"
Right Side: 152.6
Left side: 378.0cm
Right Side: 387.6cm
T84E1
Center guide, double pin, rubber chevron
Width 23"
58cm
Pitch 6"
15cm
Shoes/track 86 Ground contact length Left side: 148.8"
Right Side: 152.6
Left side: 378.0cm
Right Side: 387.6cm
M47: Performance
Max level road speed 30mph
48kph
Max trench 102"
259cm
Max grade 60% Max vertical obstacle 36"
91cm
Min turning diameter Pivot Max fording depth 48"
120cm
Cruising range ~80mi
~130km


The M47 was essentially an M46 fitted with the turret from the T42 tank prototype. The front hull had a sharper slope, however, and the rotoclone blower placed between the drivers on the M46 was deleted. The turret had a long bustle which housed the radio and a ventilator. The "eyes" of the gunner's stereoscopic rangefinder protruded from the top sides of the turret. Early tanks were armed with a 90mm gun featuring a single-baffle muzzle brake, and late tanks had a T-shaped blast deflector. Most M47s, however, were produced with a cylindrical blast deflector. Later tanks also had a taller .50cal MG pintle placed farther forward on the roof compared to earlier vehicles.

The tank was originally nicknamed Patton II, but the name was changed to Patton 47 a few weeks later. On 9 November 1950, the US Army changed the basis of its tank designation system from weight to the caliber of the vehicle's main gun. The M47, which would have been a medium tank previously, therefore became a 90mm gun tank.

An upgrade program for the M47 was started in the late 1960s and resulted in the M47M. M47M used the engine and fire control system from the 105mm gun tank M60A1. The engine, Continental's AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, had its exhaust vented through rear louvres like on the M60, replacing the M47's fender-mounted mufflers. The transmission used was the CD-850-6A. The assistant driver was eliminated in favor of a 22-round 90mm ammunition rack, and the small track tension idler wheel was deleted as well. To compensate for the location of the new engine's oil pan, the rear road wheel was moved 3.8" (9.7cm) to the rear. The tank's shock absorbers were also dropped in favor of friction snubbers. Five hundred forty-seven M47s were modified to M47M standard by Bowen-McLaughlin-York, Inc., in a factory built in Iran for M47M production. The improved tank was used by Iran and Pakistan.


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References

  1. Hunnicutt, R.P. Patton: A History of the American Main Battle Tank, volume 1. Navato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984.

  2. TM 9-718A 90-mm Gun Tank M47. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, January 1952.

  3. Crismon, Fred W. U.S. Military Tracked Vehicles. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1992.

  4. Miller, David. The Illustrated Directory of Tanks of the World. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Co., 2000.

  5. Decker, Oscar C. "The Patton Tanks: The Cold War Learning Series." Camp Colt to Desert Storm: The History of U.S. Armored Forces. Eds. George F. Hofmann, Donn A. Starry. USA: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.

  6. Foss, Chris. Modern Tanks. Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995.

  7. Hunnicutt, R.P. Sheridan: A History of the American Light Tank, volume 2. Navato, CA: Presidio Press, 1995.
    Reprinted with permission from Sheridan, R.P. Hunnicutt ©1994, available from Presidio Press, 505B San Martin Drive, Suite 160, Navato, CA 94945.



Last updated 6 Dec 2007.

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