The turret and armament on this vehicle appears similar to that of the M48A5 tank, but the hull is noticeably different. The front hull is wedge-shaped and straight as opposed to M48's rounded bow, and the exhaust pipe for the personnel heater can be seen exiting to the hull's right side, in front of the fender stowage box. The lens for the rangefinder can be seen in the armored blister on the turret side, and the gunner's telescope was provided with a cover in the canvas dust shield. Although obscured from view, this early-production machine has one lifting eye forward on the turret roof and two to the rear. Later turrets had this arrangement reversed.
This tank is such early production that it was one of the fifteen afflicted by insufficient hull armor, and was consigned to training.
The turret is reversed on this machine, and the gun is secured in its travel lock on the rear deck. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The large size of the cupola is easily seen in this overhead view. The contour of the turret casting around the rangefinder blisters is also easier to discern. The air cleaners for the engine reside on the fenders between the stowage boxes. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The tank can be seen from the right rear; note the bulge in the turret casting under the commander's cupola. A cutout can be seen in the right-hand exhaust grille for the mounting of a deep-wading exhaust stack. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The exhaust stack assembly (A) is mounted on this tank. Other fixtures installed to prepare for wading include: B. Fuel filler vent tube. C. Stack assembly support (left and right). D. Release assembly (left and right). L. Fuel filler vent hose. M. Release cord. The remaining letters are reminders to install or remove specific drain plugs and seals. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The external interphone was mounted on the right rear fender, and is visible in the previous image. A signal light on top of the interphone's protective box could be flashed by the driver to gain the attention of accompanying infantry, and likewise the infantry could flash a signal light on the driver's control box C-2297/VRC by pressing the handset switch. A 20-foot (6m) self-recoiling cord attached the handset. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
A shallower view of the turret again shows the contour of the side casting as it meets the cupola. The rangefinder blisters and gunner's telescope on this tank have been covered over.
The road wheels on the M60 are forged aluminum, and there are reinforcing struts running around the circumference of each wheel. This vehicle has also been fitted with friction snubbers on the first and last road wheels stations. Both the commander's and loader's hatches are open on this vehicle. On this later-production turret, there are two lifting eyes forward and a single one to the rear.
The stowage mount for the xenon searchlight can be seen on the left rear corner of the turret roof; the supports are attached around the turret ventilator blower cover. Side-loading air cleaner boxes are visible on the tank's fender just ahead of the rear stowage box.
The turret ventilator and searchlight stowage mount are shown here from above. An antenna mount is in front of the ventilator.
This tank features top-loading air cleaners, as opposed to the machine above.
A top-down view of the top-loading air cleaner is provided here.
M60 retained the idea of a very large cupola from the M48, and like in the older tank, the .50cal machine gun could be aimed, fired, and reloaded from under armor. Folded forward beside the gunner's periscope is an interrupter bar to prevent the TC from machine gunning the searchlight.
A closer shot of the M19 cupola shows the contour of the machine gun mount without its canvas dust cover. The gunner's flat-topped periscope housing is in front of the cupola, and mounting posts for the interrupter bar are welded to the roof beside the periscope housing. The power receptacle for the searchlight can be seen in the middle of the turret roof.
The commander was provided with a door behind his periscope housing. The pad welded to the side of the cupola was a leftover from early production when mounts for the M2HB machine gun were attached to the cupola while the M85 was experiencing production issues.
The interior of the cupola is shown in this picture. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The commander's position in the turret is shown here. He could override the gunner's inputs via his control handle, and use it to traverse the turret, and elevate and fire the gun. On the opposite side of the handle was a magnetic brake actuator that, when squeezed as the commander gripped the handle, allowed the commander to assume control from the gunner. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
A schematic of the turret traverse and elevation system is sketched in this image. The relationship of the commander's override handle to the gunner's controls and traverse mechanism can be seen. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The location of components of the fire control system is the subject of this drawing. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The commander's rangefinder was a coincidence model that did not require the visual acuity of older stereoscopic rangefinders. The commander used the vertical and horizontal adjustment knobs to align the target images from the left and right lenses until they were in coincidence. Once this occurred the range could be read through the range scale window. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The right side of the gunner's position is labeled in this picture. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The front of the gunner's position is shown here. The 105mm gun breech is to the lower left of the image. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
A closeup of the ballistic computer M13A1D is provided in this picture. The range input shaft transmitted range information from the commander's rangefinder, and the superelevation output shaft likewise transmitted superelevation information from the computer to the ballistic drive. The superelevation handcrank allowed manual input of superelevation data into the computer. The range scale was graduated from 0 to 4,400m in 100-m increments. The range correction knob was used to compensate for variable conditions that could affect the gun's performance, such as ambient air temperature and density, gun tube wear, range error, and ammunition variation. It was graduated in intervals of 1% of the range for a total of ±15%. Tube wear was measured by the number of armor-piercing discarding sabot tracer (APDS-T) rounds fired: one round of APDS-T was the equivalent of 40 high-explosive plastic tracer or 1.5 high-explosive antitank tracer rounds. If the tube was new, a correction of -1% was entered. If 10 rounds of APDS-T equivalent had been fired, the correction was 0%, 20 rounds was +1%, 30 rounds was +2%, 40 rounds was +3%, 50 rounds was +4%, 80 rounds was +5%, 90 rounds was +6%, 110 rounds was +7%, 130 rounds was +8%, 150 rounds was +9%, 170 rounds was +10%, and 190 rounds and above was +11%. The inner matching dial indicated the same range as the rangefinder when the correction was 0%, and indicated different ranges depending on the correction factor. The outer matching dial could be manually operated by the superelevation handcrank or electrically operated by the computer, and rotated between the static range scale and the inner matching dial. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The loader had a D-shaped hatch to the left of the M19 cupola, and another interrupter bar protected the searchlight when it was stowed on the left rear of the turret.
The left rear of the turret under the loader's hatch is illustrated here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The forward portion of the loader's position is the subject of this picture, and the 105mm gun breech dominates the lower part of the image. The replenisher indicator tape was used to judge the amount of hydraulic oil in the replenisher; if one side of the tape had a rough edge while the other was smooth, the amount of oil was sufficient. If both edges of the tape were rough, the replenisher needed additional oil. If both edges were smooth or there were long notches on each side, the replenisher needed bled or drained. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
A stowage socket for the .50cal M2HB machine gun was welded to the turret rear. Another antenna mount is visible on the turret roof to the right of the lifting eye.
Details of the xenon searchlight mount and power cable can be seen in this image. The visible opening in the canvas dust cover was for the coaxial machine gun.
The searchlight receptacle is uncapped on this tank, and the interrupter bar is erected.
Another example of the plugged-in searchlight is provided here. The forward turret lifting eye can be seen behind the searchlight.
The driver's hatch was surrounded by a semicircle of three M27 periscopes, and an M24 infrared periscope could be fitted in his hatch door. When driving with the hatch open, it was first necessary to remove and stow the center periscope M27 so that it did not obstruct forward vision.
The front of the driver's compartment is labeled in this picture. For clarity, his seat is shown in the dumped position. The purge pump handle was used to purge the fuel lines and pumps of air after the vehicle had been sitting for a period of time. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The right side of the driver's position is shown here. The control box C-2297/VRC to the right had the signal light that infantry using the external interphone could flash. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
Ammunition stowage tubes can be seen in this view of the left side of the driver's compartment. The turret seal hand pump and pressure gage were used when preparing the tank for deep-water fording or during chemical attack. Normal pressure in the seal was 0psi, but under the above two conditions it was to be inflated to 25psi (1.8kg/cm²). During a combat situation while fording the pressure could be decreased to 5-7psi (.4-.5kg/cm²) to permit the turret to traverse. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The driver's master control panel is detailed in this image. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The gage indicator panel was mounted above the master control panel. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The tachometer/hourmeter and speedometer/odometer were to the driver's front. The hourmeter timed engine operation based on 2,025rpm per hour: that is, one hour rolled over if the engine ran at 2,025rpm for one hour. Thus, if the engine was run for one hour at 1,350rpm, the hourmeter would advance by ⅔ of an hour. The warning light by the tachometer indicated when the engine's oil pressure was low, and the warning light by the speedometer advised of high engine and transmission oil temperature and low transmission oil pressure. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The driver had an escape hatch in the hull floor under his seat. The seat is in the dumped position in this image. To release the hatch, the lever was pulled towards the hatch cover's center, allowing the hatch to fall away. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The position of the escape hatch is seen here on the hull underside.
The engine and transmission are shown dismounted from the vehicle. The engine was governed to 2,400rpm. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The dual volute spring bump stop for the front road wheel station is highlighted in this image.
The rear road wheel, its bump stop, and the attachment of the rear shock absorber can be seen here.
This tank wears the later T142 track with replaceable rubber pads, and some of the pads are missing, allowing a view into their cups. The headlights are also gone on this machine, as is one of the external handles for fire extinguisher activation, located under the guard behind the lifting eye. Details of the fender and mud guard attachment can also be gleaned.
The method of adjusting the track tension is shown here. After the locking screw was loosened, the track adjusting link assembly was turned to move the idler wheel forward or backward to achieve the recommended tension. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
This image shows one difference between the aluminum road wheels (left) and the steel road wheels (right). The track center guides would wear the aluminum wheels at a much faster rate, and these therefore sported a steel ring to be affixed to their inner faces.
The left side of the gun mount M116 is illustrated here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
Ammunition stowage in early M60s is drawn here. In later tanks with a smaller AN/VRC series radio in place of the earlier AN/GRC series, eight rounds were stowed in the turret bustle. (Picture from Tank Data, vol. 3.)
Two independent fixed CO2 fire extinguisher systems provided protection against electrical, fuel, or oil fires in the engine compartment. Three cylinders were mounted to the driver's front left, and could be actuated by handles inside the driver's compartment or outside on the upper hull front. The driver's control handle (left) could be pulled to fire the first shot, then reset and pulled again after about 20 seconds for the second actuation. When the first shot was fired, a switch automatically cut fuel to the engine. If the handle malfunctioned, the safety keys could be removed from the cylinder control heads, and the emergency control head handles (center) could then be pulled all the way to the left to actuate the extinguishers. The external controls (right) featured separate handles for each shot. The emergency handles did not cut fuel to the engine. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
A portable CO2 fire extinguisher was kept under the gunner's seat. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The longer and wider nature of the M60A1's turret is easily seen from above. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The side contour of the turret was also modified, which can especially be seen under the commander's cupola. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
Note the enlarged turret stowage basket and the relocation of the searchlight stowage bracket to the right side of the turret rear. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The traverse and elevation system can be contrasted to the initial version above. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The commander's position in the new turret is illustrated here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The gunner's station is seen in this picture from the opposite side of the 105mm gun. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The front of the gunner's position in the new turret is labeled. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The ballistic computer M13A2 is detailed in this picture. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The turret rear is seen here; note that the gun is in the travel lock to the rear, and consequently the driver's position is visible below the turret ring. The turret bustle was occupied by radio racks, the ventilator, and ammunition stowage. On the left of the image across from the loader's seat is the commander's seat, and the commander's observation seat can be seen at the top left in the stowed position. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
Fixtures on the left side of the turret are labeled in this image. The rangefinder exits the turret side just forward and below the loader's hatch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The loader's side of the 105mm gun is seen here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The driver's steering control was changed from a conventional-type steering wheel to a T-bar. A right turn was accomplished by pulling the right handgrip to the rear, and vice-versa. When driving with the hatch open, it was no longer necessary to remove the center M27 periscope as it could be lowered into a dropped position. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The driver's position's right side is seen here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
This image shows the left side of the driver's compartment. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The revised master control panel is detailed in this image. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The gage indicator panel was redesigned and mounted ahead of the master control panel instead of above. Most of the numbers on the gage faces were overlaid with green or red arcs indicating normal or abnormal readings. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The low engine oil pressure warning light near the tachometer/odometer was reinforced by a warning horn that sounded whenever the light was illuminated. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
The portable fire extinguisher was moved to the opposite side of the turret, under the loader's seat. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
Features found on the RISE tank are labeled here. A. Personnel heater exhaust. B. Driver's vision blocks. C. Driver's hatch. D. Driver's periscope cover. E. Fender stowage box. F. Engine air cleaner. G. Rear fender stowage box. H. Fire extinguisher release handles. J. Track. K. Tow hooks. L. Headlights. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
E. Fender stowage box. F. Engine air cleaner. G. Rear fender stowage box. K. Tow hooks. M. Main gun travel lock. N. External interphone box. P. Engine access grille covers. Q. Compensating idler wheel. R. Compensating idler wheel adjusting link. S. Shock absorber. T. Track support roller. U. Roadwheel and hub. V. Drive sprocket. W. Taillights. X. Tow pintle. Y. Transmission access grille doors. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
A. 105-mm gun tube. B. Bore evacuator. C. Gunner's telescope port. D. Gunshield cover. E. Caliber .50 machine gun barrel. F. Smoke grenade launchers. G. Gunner's periscope. H. Machine gun interrupter. J. Commander's periscope. K. Commander's hatch. L. Smoke grenade stowage boxes. M. M19 commander's cupola. N. Cupola vision blocks. P. Turret ventilating blower cover. Q. Bustle rack, stowage. R. Antenna mounts. S. 5-gallon [20L] can stowage. T. Loader's hatch. U. Loader's periscope cover. V. Rangefinder blister. W. Searchlight power receptacle. X. Searchlight bracket. Y. 7.62-mm machine gun port. Z. Searchlight. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The tank's internal arrangement can be seen in this sketch. A. Headlight stowage brackets. B. 105-mm gun mount. C. Replenisher assembly. D. Breech operating handle. E. Loader's guard. F. Rangefinder. G. Commander's platform. H. Gunner's guard. J. Observation seat (stowed). K. Radio equipment. L. Oddment tray. M. Inflatable hull-to-turret seal. N. Transmission. P. Engine exhaust elbows. Q. Universal joint. R. Hull drain valves. S. Engine air cleaner intakes. T. Gunner's seat. U. Turret platform. V. Torsion bars (total of 12). W. Driver's escape hatch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The hull's internal components are drawn from above. A. Personnel heater. B. Driver's instruments. C. Driver's controls. D. Batteries. E. Fuel tanks. F. Transmission shroud. G. Final drives. H. Engine. J. Driver's seat. K. Fire extinguisher release handle. L. Fixed fire extinguishers. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The underside of the hull is represented here. M. Driver's escape hatch. N. Fuel tank drain plug access cover. P. Hull drain valves. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The driver's controls are labeled in the following series of illustrations. A. Driver hatch control. B. M27 periscope. C. Brake pressure gage. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
D. Tachometer/Hour meter. E. AN/VVS-2 night vision viewer (RISE PASSIVE tanks) or IR periscope M24 (RISE tanks). F. Speedometer/odometer. G. Powerplant warning lamp [lights if engine oil pressure, engine oil temperature, or transmission oil temperature is in red area]. H. Steering control. J. Heater air outlet door. K. Accelerator pedal. L. Transmission shift control. M. Smoke generator indicator light. N. Intercom control panel. P. Smoke generator switch. Q. Air cleaner blower switch. R. Master control panel. S. Indicator panel. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
T. Manifold heater switch (on end of purge pump handle) [Turns fuel to manifold heaters on and off. Turns power to manifold heater spark plugs on and off.] U. Purge pump handle. V. Accelerator lock lever [locks accelerator pedal in preset position]. W. Forward drain valve control lever. X. Rear drain valve control lever. Y. Gas particulate air heater switch and indicator (located at rear of driver's seat). Z. Escape hatch lever. AA. Driver seat control levers (4). AB. Brake pedal. AC. Headlight dimmer switch. AD. Turret seal pump. AE. Manual fuel shutoff handle and latch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The gunner's position is the subject of the following series. A. Telescope M105D. B. Diopter ring. C. M32 periscope (RISE tanks). D. Ballistic shield operating handle. E. Ballistic shield lock plunger. F. Gunner's switch box. G. Stabilization control selector. H. Deflection knob. J. Deflection lock. K. Elevation lock. L. Elevation knob. M. Light source control. N. Reticle selector. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
P. Elev Balance knob [eliminates main gun stabilization elevation drift]. Q. Main gun switch. R. Machine gun switch. S. Elev/Trav power switch. T. Stab switch [turns on stabilization system from standby]. U. Power switch [places stabilization system in standby mode when on]. V. Trav balance knob [eliminates turret stabilization traversing drift]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
W. Unity power window. X. IR body. Y. M32 IR body diopter ring. Z. Daylight body deflection knob. AA. IR body elevation knob. AB. IR body deflection knob. AC. Daylight body elevation knob. AD. IR switch [selects vehicle power or battery for IR body]. AE. Daylight body diopter ring. AF. Daylight body. AG. Source control knob [adjusts daylight body and infinity sight reticle brightness]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
AH. Interphone control box. AJ. M13A2 ballistic computer. AK. Rheostat knob. AL. Superelevation handcrank. AM. Superelev mil counter. AN. Ammo indicator. AP. Reset pushbutton switch. AQ. Ammo selector handle. AR. Range correction knob. AS. Outer (superelevation) pointer. AT. Inner (range) pointer. AU. On/off circuit breaker. AV. Rheostat knob. AW. M28E2 azimuth indicator. AX. Resetter knob. AY. Firing buttons. AZ. Manual traversing handle. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
A. M13A3 elevation quadrant. B. Elevation scale. C. Rheostat. D. Level vial tube. E. Manual firing handle. F. Firing button. G. Manual elevating handle. H. Gunner's control handles. J. Magnetic brake palm switch. K. Gas particulate air heater switch. L. Micrometer scale. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The passive night vision instruments are shown here. A. Daylight body diopter ring. B. Unity power window. C. Passive body (RISE PASSIVE tanks). D. Passive body diopter ring. E. Shutter lever. F. Power switch. G. Reticle control. H. Tube control [controls passive body image intensification]. J. Daylight body deflection knob. K. Passive body deflection knob. L. Passive body elevation knob. M. Daylight body elevation knob. N. Daylight body. P. Light source control. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The tank commander's station is detailed in the following images. A. M17A1 rangefinder. B. Cupola electrical power control switch. C. Control box [for remote radio frequency selection]. D. Searchlight remote. E. Interphone control box. F. Commander's control handle. G. Palm switch. H. Firing switch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
J. Grenade launcher switch. K. Power switch [for smoke grenade launcher system]. L. Power light. M. Emergency stab shutoff switch. N. Domelight. P. Blower switch [for ventilator blower]. Q. Stabilization power indicator. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
R. Gas particulate air heater switch. S. Searchlight control. T. Receiver-transmitter RT 246/VRC [only in some vehicles]. U. Battle override switch [restores communications power if circuit breaker opens during battle]. V. Audio frequency amplifier AM 1780/VRC. W. Receiver R-442/VRC [not on all vehicles]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
A. Elevation handle [for manual elevation of caliber .50 machine gun]. B. Machine gun trigger switch. C. Caliber .50 machine gun access door. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
D. Headrest adjust lever. E. M36 periscope (RISE tanks). F. unity power window. G. Light source control. H. Caliber .50 machine gun electrical safety switch. J. Cupola traverse control handle. K. IR body diopter ring. L. Ballistic shield control handle. M. IR body. N. IR switch [to select vehicle or battery power]. P. Elevation knob. Q. IR body and daylight body deflection knobs. R. Daylight body elevation knob. S. Daylight body diopter ring. T. Daylight body. U. Azimuth lock and interlock. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
A tank with passive night vision is the subject of this and the following images. A. Daylight body diopter. B. Unity power window. C. Passive body reticle control. D. Passive body diopter ring. E. Light source control. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
F. Shutter lever [opens shutter and depresses power switch when moved down]. G. Passive body power switch. H. Tube control [controls passive body image amplification]. J. Passive body. K. Daylight body deflection knob. L. Passive body elevation knob. M. Passive body deflection knob. N. Daylight body elevation knob. P. Daylight body. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The breech of the 105mm gun is shown in this picture. The gun's normal recoil length was 12" (30cm) with a maximum of 13.5" (34.3cm), and the estimated gun tube life was 400 equivalent full charge rounds. A. Plunger. B. Breech operating handle. C. Main gun safety switch. D. Trip lever [allows safety switch to move from fire to safe]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-1.)
The dispersion of the smoke grenade launchers is sketched here. The left and right patterns had their own firing buttons; to discharge all grenades, both buttons needed to be pressed. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-2.)
The crew were provided with M25A1 masks that could be attached to hoses that connected to the tank's gas particulate systems. The systems filtered chemical and biological agents, but would not protect from carbon monoxide. Due to the chance of frostbite, the filter heater was to be operating for 15-20 minutes before the masks were connected when the tank was in arctic conditions. A. Hose. B. Connector. C. M3 heater unit. D. M25A1 tank mask cannister [sic]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-257-10-2.)
Ammunition stowage in late M60A1s is drawn here. Earlier tanks had a three-round stowage tray instead of the three-round tubular stowage rack. (Picture from Tank Data, vol. 3.)
This vehicle is also fitted with the aluminum wheels, but note the horizontal hull tiedown eyes compared with vertical hull tiedown eyes the above vehicle. M60 and M60A1 hulls up to serial number 5025 had three vertical tiedown eyes rated at 20,000lb (9000kg) each. M60A1s from serial number 5026 and 152mm gun-launcher tanks M60A2 from serial number 4426 had four horizontal tiedown eyes rated at 490,000lb (220,000kg) side load and 413,000lb (187,000kg) oblique load. Late-production hulls were fitted with only two horizontal lifting eyes, as the middle two were deleted. This tank is equipped with the 1kw AN/VSS-3A xenon infrared searchlight, which is plugged into the receptacle on the turret roof. The light had a peak candlepower output of 50 million, and could operate with a compact beam of 1° minimum or a spread beam of from 1° to 7°. In front of this on the gun tube is a pyrotechnic device to simulate the firing of the main gun. The right-hand blister for the coincidence rangefinder is visible near the top of the turret just below the commander's cupola. Armored top-loading air cleaners are also visible on the rear fenders between the stowage boxes. This tank belonged to the 24th Infantry Division, and was taking part in Exercise GALLANT EAGLE '79 at Eglin Air Force Base. (Picture taken 25 Oct 1978 by SSGT Dwight A. Jackson; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)
The loader's hatch and commander's cupola are open on this machine, allowing a glance at the roof armor thickness. The empty mount for the AN/VSS-3A searchlight is present above the gun tube. An armored top-loading air cleaner can be seen on the fender. The tanks belonged to A Troop, 3d Squadron, 4th Cavalry, 25th Infantry Division. (Picture taken 10 Sep 1983 by Al Chang; available from the National Archives.)
This Marine tank is fitted with explosive reactive armor (ERA). These tiles are composed of explosive sandwiched between two steel plates. When struck by a high-explosive antitank (HEAT) shell or missile, the HEAT penetrator detonates the explosive, sending the plates in opposite directions. This action destabilizes the HEAT penetrator, making it less effective at penetrating the tank's armor. This tank was participating in the US/Thai exercise THALAY THAI '89. (Picture taken 1 Sep 1989; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)
A view of the turret front without the canvas dust cover is provided here. The aperture in the gun shield for the gunner's telescope M105C has been blanked off. The three attachment points for the searchlight can be seen above the gun tube, and its capped power receptacle on the turret roof is visible. The small pipe to the driver's right on the hull roof is the bilge pump outlet.
The gun shield is shown in profile in this image. The coaxial machine gun aperture is on this side of the vehicle.
The gun mount M140 can be seen here removed from the tank.. (Picture from TM 9-2350-215-10.)
This early-production M60A2 retains the bore evacuator on the 152mm gun-launcher. Details of the suspension, such as the aluminum road wheels and friction snubbers on the first two and last road wheels, are also visible. A 23" (58cm) 2.2kw 100 million candlepower xenon searchlight is mounted on the turret's left side, in front of the loader's hatch. An infrared filter could be used as well, black on the AN/VSS-1 searchlight and pink on the AN/VSS-2. The light could be used in overdrive mode for 15-20 seconds once every five minutes, which increased its output to 150 million candlepower. The beam width for both the AN/VSS-1 and -2 was either 0.5-0.75° in narrow mode or 7° in wide mode. The beam was 1.2° high in each mode. With white light, the lamp had a planning range of 1500m; with the pink filter the AN/VSS-2 had an infrared planning range of 1000m.
The narrow cross-section of the turret can be glimpsed here. The upper part of the turret was not much wider than the gun mount, and the turret widens near the base for the gunner's and loader's stations. The service headlights and infrared headlights are obvious; above these in both headlight groups is a blackout driving light, and below them is a blackout marker light. The mounting locations for the driver's three M27 periscopes are visible in the upper hull, and the exhaust for the personnel heater can be seen running from the right side of the hull roof to the tank's right fender. This vehicle is running on the T142 track with replaceable rubber pads.
The barrel of the gun-launcher on this tank lacks the bore evacuator seen on the previous vehicles. It is equipped with the closed-breech scavenging system, which rendered the bore evacuators redundant. The introduction of this system came about due to issues with burning fragments of the combustible ammunition cases remaining in the gun breech after the round had been fired. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
This rear view shows the bulge under the rear louvres cause by the addition of the CBSS. The system was comprised of two 3100psi (220kg/cm²) air bottles, two gear-driven compressors, and other associated equipment, and it would deliver three 1000psi (70kg/cm²) shots of air after each main gun round was fired. The system was triggered by the recoil of the gun-launcher. Across the back of the turret, from left to right, is a stowage basket, turret ventilator blower, and the stowage point for the searchlight. The large size of the commander's cupola can also be ascertained. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
A closer look at the characteristic bulge under the exhaust grilles present on CBSS-equipped tanks is provided here. There is a pronounced lip along the bottom of the grilles that overlaps this bulge. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The Cross-Drive transmission has been removed in this image, and the CBSS installation including the air compressors can be seen at the bottom rear of the assembly. (Photo by Mark Halpin.)
M60A2 possessed a new commander's cupola, which is illustrated here. His M51 periscope is mounted at the top of the cupola, and the circular mount for the .50cal machine gun is offset to the right. Both cupola and turret were stabilized in azimuth and elevation. The gunner's M50 periscope is visible on top of his hatch on the turret's low right side. A tow cable is stowed on the side of the turret, and a stowage basket rings the turret rear.
The loader had a hatch on the left side of the turret, and an M37 periscope was installed in it. Ammunition was uploaded through the loader's hatch. A tow cable is again present, and details of the xenon searchlight mount and wiring can be seen here.
The loader's hatch is open here, and the thickness of the armor surrounding the hatch can be gleaned.
The bore evacuator on the 152mm gun-launcher is apparent, positioned about halfway down the short gun tube. The housing above the gun was for the Shillelagh missile's infrared transmitter. The gunner's M126 telescope is visible, and under the padlocked cover above the telescope is the aperture for the tank's laser rangefinder. The telescope was the sight used for the missile, and the primary sight for canister and coaxial machine gun engagements. It was the secondary for HEAT-MP shells after the gunner's M50 periscope. The external triggers for the tank's fire extinguishers are visible under the guard on the hull front slope.
The components of the laser rangefinder system are shown here installed in the turret. (Picture from FM 17-12-4 Tank Gunnery for M60A2 Tanks.)
The components of the missile guidance system are shown here. (Picture from FM 17-12-4 Tank Gunnery for M60A2 Tanks.)
The M60A2 gunner's controls are shown here. His handles are obvious in the middle of the image, and to the left is his panel and computer control unit. The M126 telescope is above the gunner's panel, and his periscope M50 is to the right of his handles. The ammunition box in the center of the turret floor was used to stow eight conventional rounds.
This view is up into the commander's cupola. The microphone and intercom control box are visible on the turret wall, and the cupola traverse mechanism is behind the TC's left shoulder.
This is the gunner's laser ranging control unit, which allowed him to select which laser return the computer used as the basis for a target's range. It is located just to the left of his periscope.
This view is looking across the turret to the loader's position. Stowage for the firing circuit tester, gunner's quadrant, and spare lamp are labeled, and the loader's panel is mounted on the left turret wall. The breech of the 152mm gun-launcher is on the right of the picture.
This view highlights the commander's panel on the left side of his cupola. The knobs and toggle switches on the panel perform functions related to target designation and gun stabilization. His handles are visible in the bottom of the image, and the browpad for his M51 periscope is above the handles.
The right side of the commander's cupola is shown here. The M19 ballistic computer control unit is in the center of the image, and this allowed the TC to adjust for crosswind speed, cant, parallax, ammunition type, gun jump, and drift. Some of the eleven vision blocks ringing the base of the cupola are visible, and the M51 periscope is on the left of the image.
Details of the top of the tank can be seen in this image. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
The mounting of the crosswind sensor is detailed here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
The positioning of some turret components are sketched for us here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
The key for the above diagram is: 1. M85 machine gun in commander's cupola. 2. M240 machine gun. 3. Radios in turret bustle. 4. Brass receptacle container on co-axial machine gun mount. 5. Interphone and control boxes. 6. Antennas and wind sensor mast. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
The various components of the turret and gun control system are diagrammed here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
Details of the tank's ballistics drive are drawn in this picture. This assembly mechanically connected the gunner's periscopes and laser rangefinder to the gun mount in order to keep them synchronized. The ballistics drive also added superelevation from the computer output unit and changed the line-of-sight of the gunner's periscopes and rangefinder according to this superelevation. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
The commander's controls and indicators are shown in the following drawings. 1. Laser rangefinder receiver-transmitter. 2. Searchlight remote control (passive). 3. Frequency selector C-2742/VRC. 4. Networks box. 5. Stabilization electronics indicator. 6. Cupola power switch. 7. Power pack blower motor indicator. 8. Master power indicator. 9. Test connector (J4). 10. Power pack blower motor circuit breaker. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
11. Stab electronics circuit breaker. 12. Stabilizer controller unit. 13. Intercom control C-2298/VRC. 14. Ammunition select unit lamp bright/dim control. 15. HEP/WP ammunition switch/indicator. 16. Moving indicator. 17. FSDS ammunition switch/indicator. 18. Stationary indicator. 19. XM21 computer. 20. Commander's seat. 21. Moving/stationary switch [Moving selected when the tank was moving or when the target was taking evasive action; stationary for when the tank and target were not moving or when the target was not taking evasive action]. 22. Ammunition select unit. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
23. APDS ammunition switch/indicator. 24. HEAT ammunition switch/indicator. 25. Commander's control handle. 26. Palm switch. 27. Thumb switch [when held with palm switch depressed, offset the gunner's 8x daylight reticle and the azimuth mirror of the laser rangefinder at the commander's station to the computed lead value]. 28. Firing switch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
29. Push button unit that launched three smoke grenades from each discharger when a single switch was pressed, or all twelve grenades when both switches were pressed. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The turret roof at the commander's position is shown here. 30. Grenade power switch. 31. Smoke grenade launcher system power light. 32. Domelight brightness control. 33. Domelight. 34. Domelight power off/red light/white light control switch. 35. Turret ventilator blower switch. 36. Stabilization system on light. 37. Emergency stab shut-off switch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The rear of the commander's position is labeled in this drawing. 40. Observation seat. 41. Receiver R-442/VRC. 42. Gas-particulate filter unit air heater control. 43. Gas-particulate filter hose (orifice). 44. Searchlight control (passive). 45. Receiver-transmitter RT 246/VRC. 46. Grenade box. 47. Spare lamp box. 48. Spare bulb box. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The internal components of the laser rangefinder are shown here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-20-2 C6.)
The commander's controls for the laser rangefinder are detailed here. The rangefinder had a maximum lasing rate of 6 rangings/minute for 2 minutes followed by a 3-minute wait, while 3 rangings/minute could be performed continuously. 1. Range switch/indicator. A steady red light indicated that the laser had been fired or was in test mode; or that the rangefinder was locked out by computer controls (manual mode). A flashing red light indicated that the laser was armed and could be fired by pressing the range switch or from the gunner's position. 2. 1 switch/indicator. When pressed, the switch attempted to select the first return. The selection was allowed if SEL was on or if both GO and SEL were off. 3. Test indicator. 4. On indicator. 5. Auto mode indicator. 6. Mode switch, to select test, on, or auto modes. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
8. Deflection control. 9. Elevation control. 10. Reticle brightness control. 11. Filter bracket. 12. 6x/12x switch. 13. Eyepiece. 14. Diopter ring. 15. GO indicator. A green light indicated range data had been fed to the computer. 16. Malfunction indicator. 17. Light/dim/test control. 18. SEL indicator. An orange light indicated range data was not fed to the computer. Manual feeding of range or selection of replies was required. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The gunner's position is labeled in this drawing. 1. Telescope M105D. 2. Diopter ring. 3. Periscope mount M118E1 (Passive). 4. M35E1 periscope (Passive). 5. Ballistic shield operating handle (Passive). 6. Lock plunger (Passive). 7. Output unit. 8. MIL counter. 9. Ammunition selector unit. 10. Gunner's switch box. 11. Stabilization control selector. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
12. Gunner's control unit. 13. Gunner's control handles. 14. Accumulator pressure gage. 14.1. Hydraulic pressure selector (dump) valve control and indicator. 15. Deflection knob. 16. Elevation lock. 17. Deflection lock. 18. Elevation knob. 19. Light source control. 20. Filter box. 21. Aiming data chart. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
25. HEAT switch/indicator. 26. Moving indicator. 27. Bright/dim control. 28. HEP/WP switch/indicator. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
29. FSDS switch/indicator. 30. Main gun indicator. 31. Machine gun indicator. 32. Machine gun switch. 33. Trav balance knob [to control traverse drift while in stabilized mode]. 34. Stabilization power indicator. 35. Elev balance knob [to control elevation drift while in stabilized mode]. 36. Intercom control C-2298/VRC. 37. Azimuth indicator scale lamp rheostat knob. 38. M28E2 azimuth indicator. 39. Resetter knob. 40. Stab indicator. 41. Stab switch. 42. Stabilization system power switch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
43. Elev/trav power indicator. 44. Elev/trav power switch. 45. Gunner's palm switches. 46. Firing triggers. 47. Main gun switch. 48. Manual traversing handle. 49. Moving/stationary switch. 50. APDS switch/indicator. 51. Stationary indicator. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
52. M13A1 elevation quadrant. 53. Elevation scale. 54. Elevation quadrant lamp rheostat control. 55. Level vial tube. 56. Manual firing handle (blasting machine). 57. Manual elevation handle. 58. Thumb switch [when pressed when palm switch was depressed, the laser was reset and fired, and the daylight body or TTS reticles and laser rangefinder mirrors were offset to the computed lead value]. 59. Gunner's seat. 60. Electronics unit. 61. Emer power switch [When on, power was supplied to the laser rangefinder when power to the computer was off. When off, laser rangefinder power was controlled by the power switch on the gunner's control unit.]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The gunner's control unit is shown in this sketch. 1. Red edge panel lights brightness control. In the upper left is the computer and laser system primary power indicator light, and the power switch is directly below the light. To the right of the power switch is the lamp/normal/system switch. It was sprung to the normal setting, and when rotated to the lamp setting illuminated all of the lamps and indicators in the control unit. When the system setting was selected, the computer underwent a self-test, the results of which were indicated on the self test indicators, and the laser rangefinder Range (meters) and Returns display. The series of lights across the top indicated, from left to right, an OK computer self test; a defective computer unit; a defective output unit; a defective reticle projector unit; a defective gunner's control unit; a defective cant unit; a defective laser rangefinder unit; and a defective or missing crosswind sensor, or that the system was being operated in manual wind mode. The air temp and altitude knobs were used to input those values into the computer. Panel lights are between and outside of these knobs, and five more are present on the lower portion of the unit. In the lower right corner of the upper section is the manual/rangefinder switch, which determined if the computer accepted input data from the rangefinder or the range dial on the right side of the gunner's control unit.
At the upper left of the lower section is the remaining tube life percentage control knob, and below this is the switch to put the system into boresight mode, where all computer functions except parallax and range were deactivated. The knob between the left and center panel lights at the top told the computer to calculate for either M728 or M392 APDS ammunition, while the knob to the right set the computer to calculate for M456 HEAT ammunition. The spare position on this knob was not used. At the right of the top row is the crosswind mph control to manually input crosswind speed from the right or left. The Common Zero column of knobs at the left offset all azimuth (top) or elevation (bottom) settings of individual controls by a fixed amount. To the right of these are the APDS azimuth (top) and elevation (bottom) zeroing controls. To the right of these are the HEP/WP azimuth and elevation zeroing controls, and to the right of these are the HEAT azimuth and elevation zeroing controls. The final column of knobs on the right are the FSDS azimuth and elevation zeroing controls. On the inside of the hinged cover at the bottom are areas to log the various settings used. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The loader's position is drawn here. 8. Interphone and control box. 9. Gas-particulate filter unit air heater control. 10. Traverse lock handle. 11. Stabilization system on light. 12. Emergency stab shut-off switch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The driver's position is the subject of this and the following three sketches. 1. Driver hatch control. 2. M27 periscopes. 3. Brake pressure gage. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
4. Tachometer/hour meter. 5. AN/VVS-2 driver's night vision viewer. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
6. Speedometer/odometer. 7. Powerplant warning lamp. 8. Steering control. 9. Heater air outlet door. 10. Accelerator pedal. 11. Transmission shift lever. 12. Domelight. 13. Slave receptacle. 14. Intercom control. 15. Master control panel. 16. Indicator panel. 17. Bilge pump. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
18. Purge pump/manifold heater switch (located on end of purge pump handle). 19. Accelerator lock lever. 20. Gas-particulate filter hose (orifice). 21. Driver's seat control levers (4). 22. Brake pedal. 23. Headlight dimmer switch. 24. Turret seal pump. 25. Manual fuel shutoff handle with latch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The driver's indicator panel is labeled here. 1. Engine oil pressure. 2. Battery-generator. 3. Transmission oil pressure. 4. Transmission oil temperature. 5. Fuel tanks selector switch. Under the battery-generator indicator is the fuel level gage for the selected tank. In the bottom left corner is the engine oil temperature gage. The dust detector warning light at the top left (if equipped) illuminated when dust detector pressure switches in the engine compartment tripped. The engine smoke generator switch at the top right was located under a protective cover, which was lifted to reveal the switch. The smoke generator was to be used with at least 1,600 engine rpm, and it was also not to be used in a building or enclosed area, when personnel were near, or when the tank's fuel supply was low. The indicator light to the left of the switch illuminated when the smoke generator was on. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The driver's master control panel is drawn. 1. Starter switch. 2. Master battery indicator. 3. Night vision indicator. 4. Driver's night vision viewer power switch. 5. Hi beam indicator. 6. Lighting control. 7. Gas-particulate filter unit indicator. 8. Bilge pump indicator. 9. Gas-particulate filter unit switch. 10. Bilge pump switch. 11. Air cleaner blower switch. In the bottom right, the personnel heater master switch turned power on to the personnel heater switch. A 24-volt utility outlet is below the lighting control, and to the left of the utility outlet is the infrared headlight/blackout drive lights switch. The fuel pumps power switch is at the lower left, and directly above is the engine fuel shutoff switch. To the right of this is the master battery switch. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
A new track tension adjustment mechanism was introduced, where grease pressure was used to move the idler wheel instead of a wrench. 1. Pressure relief valve. 2. Grease fitting. 4. Locking collar [shown loosened]. 6. Lube gun extension. 7. Grease gun. 9. Spanner wrench. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
This tank is externally similar to the M60A1 above. Friction snubbers on the first two and last road wheels are obvious. The front road wheel arm was equipped with double bump stops, compared to single bump stops on the other wheels. The single bump stops can be seen behind the road wheels. The exhaust pipe for the personnel heater can be seen in front of the forward fender stowage box, and a triangular mount for a smoke grenade launcher assembly is visible on the forward turret below the grab handle.
The forged aluminum wheel on the right is easily contrasted with the steel wheel on the left; reinforcing ribs easily differentiate the aluminum wheels. The mounting for the road wheel swing arms are obvious, as are the bump stops behind each road wheel.
The linkage for the adjustable compensating idler wheel is shown here. The rubber pads on the T142 track are secured by a bolt that goes through the track block.
This view of the driver's hatch shows the mounts for the periscopes around his position, as well as for the night vision device in the hatch door itself. This hatch had originally been designed for the infrared periscope M24, but was then modified to accept the AN/VVS-2 passive viewer.
The interior of the driver's position is shown here. The steering T-bar is pivoted to the right. In this position, the tank would turn to the left while moving forward, and to the right while in reverse. The red warning light above and to the right of the speedometer alerted the driver to high engine or transmission oil temperature, or low transmission oil pressure. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The right side of the turret was home to the commander's cupola and the gunner's periscope sight. The round aperture for the commander's M85 machine gun is visible in the cupola's front, and a periscope guard is present on top of the cupola. From the turret mounting surface, the cupola is 21.56" (54.76cm) tall to the periscope guard and 16.57" (42.09cm) without the periscope guard. Its inner diameter was 34" (86cm) and its total diameter was 52.25" (132.7cm). With the M85 machine gun and 180 rounds of ammunition, the cupola weighed 2439lb (1106kg). Mounted just beside the gunner's periscope is an interrupter bar that, when swung to the vertical position, was meant to prevent the commander's machine gun from firing down onto the gun shield-mounted searchlight. The rounded top to the gunner's periscope guard indicates that this tank is equipped with the AN/VSG-2 tank thermal sight. Non-TTS tanks (like the M60 above) had a flat-topped periscope guard.
The shape and thickness of the commander's cupola door can be seen in this image. This tank from the 1ST Battalion, 108th Armor, 48th Brigade, Georgia National Guard was taking part in an annual training exercise, hence the MILES sensors on the turret and pyrotechnics mounted on the main gun's bore evacuator. (Picture taken 15 Jul 1983 by Long; available from the National Archives.)
The loader had his own hatch in the left side of the turret roof, and an M37 periscope was provided in his hatch door. The flexible base of the crosswind sensor is visible on the rear of the turret, and hidden from view behind the commander's cupola is a turret ventilator. The left-side rangefinder blister is empty since the laser rangefinder only occupied the opposite blister. Note that the xenon searchlight receptacle has been capped on this tank, since it was no longer necessary.
The commander's controls and indicators for the tank thermal sight are labeled in this and the next sketches. 1. Gunner/CMDR switch [determined if the gunner or commander controlled the display contrast, brightness, and polarity]. 2. Brightness knob. 3. Contrast knob. 4. Polarity switch. 5. Thermal channel eyepiece. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
1. Elapsed time meter [recorded the number of hours the TTS had been on]. 2. 4CB1 switch (circuit breaker) [controlled power to the TTS system]. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The gunner's station in a TTS tank is labeled. 1. Day channel boresight elevation knob. 2. Day channel boresighting azimuth knob. 3. Reticle and thermal channel status indicator brightness control. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
4. Daylight channel periscope. 5. Filter selector [selected between haze, red, neutral density, or clear filters for the daylight 8x channel]. 6. Daylight channel diopter ring. 7. Unity power reticle boresight azimuth knob. 8. Headrest locking lever. 9. Unity reticle boresight elevation knob. 10. Unity power window. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
11. Thermal channel eyepiece. 12. Sys Test, Off, Lamp Test (BITE) switch [Sys Test: tested TTS assemblies; Off: de-energized Sys Test and Lamp Test, and returned to center (Off) automatically; Lamp Test: tested lamps in built-in test equipment (BITE) display]. 13. BITE display [displayed system status/malfunctions. With Mode switch in Stby or On positions: Cool illuminated until thermal detector cooled to operating temperature (within 15 minutes). With BITE switch held in Sys Test position: Cable indicated a loose or defective cable; Pwr Conv indicated a power converter unit malfunction; Head Assy indicated a head assembly display malfunction; Gnr Dspl indicated a gunner's display malfunction; Cmdr Dspl indicated a commander's display malfunction]. 14. Thermal display brightness control; just to the left is the thermal display contrast control. 15. Polarity switch. To the left of the polarity switch is the Mode switch, which controlled TTS power in three positions: Stby provided power to the cooler circuit; On activated all TTS power; Off turned all TTS power off except for the daylight channel and unity power reticles, which would be on if the Computer Power switch was on. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
18. Thermal channel field of view selector [wide or narrow]. 19. Thermal channel range focus control. 20. Thermal channel boresight azimuth knob. 21. Thermal channel boresight elevation knob. 22. Blk Hot/Wht Hot indicator [showed position of polarity switch]. 23. WFOV indicator [showed when wide field of view was selected]. 24. Thermal filter knob. (Picture from TM 9-2350-253-10 C12.)
The right side of the turret is detailed in this picture. The commander's seat is elevated to the right, and the gunner's position is directly to the front and below. The commander's black control handle sits atop the turret traverse gearbox assembly; the commander's control handle was connected to the gunner's control assembly by the two rods: the upper elevation rod and lower traverse rod. The unmarked white box directly behind the gearbox assembly on the turret wall is the electronics controller unit. Directly behind his control handle on the turret wall with is his ammunition select box. The black box on the turret wall above and to the right of the ammunition select box is the commander's communication control box, and the networks box for the cupola power switch and circuit breakers for the stabilization electronics and power pack blower motor is to the right of this. The laser rangefinder can be seen near the top of the image; the upper black knob was for adjusting deflection while the lower knob was for adjusting elevation. In front of the turret traverse gearbox is the gunner's azimuth indicator, with his large control unit and smaller stabilization control box and gun control boxes going forward along the turret wall. Above the stabilization control box is the turret hand traverse drive; the shaft from this handle connects to the turret gearbox assembly via the no-bak assembly, which prevents the rotation of the hand traversing drive handle when the turret is using hydraulic power, or when the turret rotates due to being on a slope or when the gun tube strikes an obstacle. The gunner's control handles can be seen on the lower left. The tank thermal sight is not mounted, but the commander's extension would snake along the turret wall above where the rods exiting the front of his override handle have been bent downward. The gunner's telescope remains, however. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The 105mm ammunition stowage in the turret bustle is shown here. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)
The protective flap on this blister would open when the laser rangefinder was in use. The rangefinder could detect targets from 200m to 4700m and had a maximum lasing rate of 3 per minute, or 6 per minute for 2 minutes followed by a 3-minute cooling period. An armored fender-mounted air cleaner is visible behind the rangefinder blister between the fender stowage boxes.
The mount for the left-side smoke grenade launcher is shown here, absent the launcher itself. The power receptacle cap is unscrewed.
The travel lock for the tank's 105mm gun was placed on the covering for the insulated exhaust tunnel. The tunnel was lined on both sides by air intake louvres for the engine. A wire stowage basket is present on the rear of the turret.
The exhaust grille doors are highlighted here, and the shape of the armor below these can be contrasted with the M60A2 with the CBSS. The square in the right-side door is for mounting a deep-water fording exhaust stack, and the two square panels under the grille doors were for access to the tank's transmission.