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M16
M16A1

Multiple Gun Motor Carriage M161-9

M16: General
Date of first acceptance May 1943 Total acceptances 2877 + 628 converted from MGMC M13 + 109 converted from twin 20mm GMC T10E1
Manufacturer White Motor Co. Crew
5 men:
  • Commander in cab right
  • Gunner in turret
  • Two cannoneers on right and left of turret
  • Driver in cab left
M16: Dimensions
Combat weight 19,000lbs
8600kg
Height 103"
262cm
Length with winch 256"
650cm
Gun overhang forward 0"
Width 77.9"
198cm
Front tread 64.5"
164cm
Rear tread 63.8"
162cm
Wheelbase 135.5"
344.2cm
Ground clearance 11.2"
28.4cm
Ground pressure, tires 30psi
2.1kg/cm²
M16: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
Four .50cal M2TTHB MG M45D 5000 rounds 360°
(electric)
60°/sec +90° to -10°
(electric)
60°/sec
Rangefinder
Reflex sight M18 or illuminated sight Mk. 9 Mod. 1
M16: Armor
Assembly
Bolting
Hull
Rolled face-hardened steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Radiator louvres .25"
.64cm
26°
Windshield cover .50"
1.3cm
25°
Sides .25"
.64cm
Rear .25"
.64cm
Hood top .25"
.64cm
83°
Turret
Rolled face-hardened steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Shield .25"
.64cm
0° to 35°
M16: Automotive
Engine White 160AX; 6 cylinder, 4 cycle, in-line gasoline
Horsepower Net: 147@3000rpm Torque Net: 325 ft-lb@1200rpm Fuel capacity 60gal
230L
Transmission Spicer 3461 constant mesh, 4 speeds forward, 1 reverse
Steering Steering wheel
Brakes Hydraulic (Hydrovac)
M16: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Front: Semi-elliptic longitudinal leaf spring
Rear: Vertical volute spring
Front: Steel ventilated disc
Rear: 1 bogie/track;
4 dual/bogie
1 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
18-tooth front drive Spring-loaded at rear of track On front wheels
M16: Track
Center guide band type
Width 12"
30cm
Pitch 4"
10cm
Pitches/track 58 Track ground contact length 46.75"
118.7cm
M16: Performance
Max level road speed 45mph
72kph
Max grade 60%
Angle of approach 33° Angle of departure 45°
Max vertical obstacle 12"
30cm
Min turning diameter 59'
18m
Max fording depth 32"
81cm
Cruising range ~200mi, roads
~320km, roads

The M16 was based on the half-track personnel carrier M3, and was essentially an MGMC M13 with four .50cal guns. The new weapon mount was designated as M45, and introduced a 6" (15cm) adapter ring so that the guns could fire to the sides and rear when the armor flaps were unhinged. Interrupter switches in the gun mount prevented firing when the guns approached the vehicle cab. The limits were set in azimuth as from 56.5°±1° left traverse to 29.5°±1° right traverse for the bottom right-hand gun; 53°±1° left traverse to 33°±1° right traverse for the top right-hand gun; 22.5°±1° left traverse to 63.5°±1° right traverse for the bottom left-hand gun; and 26°±1° left traverse to 60°±1° right traverse for the top left-hand gun. In elevation, the restrictions were from the guns' lowest limit of depression to +4°±1° for the bottom guns and from the lowest limit of depression to -1.5°±1°for the top guns. Leaving the guns in the interrupted zone for long periods caused the springs in the interrupter switches to take a set, and the switches consequently would fail to function. The M45D mount had a platform at the rear to support two cannoneers.

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Multiple Gun Motor Carriage M16A11-5

M16A1: General
Total acceptances 1662
Manufacturer Bowen and McLaughlin, Inc.
5 men:
  • Commander in cab right
  • Gunner in turret
  • Two cannoneers on right and left of turret
  • Driver in cab left
M16A1: Dimensions
Combat weight 20,000lbs
9000kg
Height 103"
262cm
Length with winch 256"
650cm
Gun overhang forward 0"
Width 77.9"
198cm
Front tread 64.5"
164cm
Rear tread 63.8"
162cm
Wheelbase 135.5"
344.2cm
Ground clearance 11.2"
28.4cm
M16A1: Armament
Type Mount Ammunition Traverse Max traverse rate Elevation Max elevation rate
Four .50cal M2TTHB MG M45F 5000 rounds 360°
(electric)
60°/sec +90° to -10°
(electric)
60°/sec
Rangefinder
Reflex sight M18 or illuminated sight Mk. 9 Mod. 1
M16A1: Armor
Assembly
Bolting
Hull
Rolled face-hardened steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Radiator louvres .25"
.64cm
26°
Windshield cover .50"
1.3cm
25°
Sides .25"
.64cm
Rear .25"
.64cm
Hood top .25"
.64cm
83°
Turret
Rolled face-hardened steel
Location Thickness Angle from vertical
Shield .25"
.64cm
0° to 35°
M16A1: Automotive
Engine White 160AX; 6 cylinder, 4 cycle, in-line gasoline
Horsepower Net: 147@3000rpm Torque Net: 325 ft-lb@1200rpm Fuel capacity 60gal
230L
Transmission Spicer 3461 constant mesh, 4 speeds forward, 1 reverse
Steering Steering wheel
Brakes Hydraulic (Hydrovac)
M16A1: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Front: Semi-elliptic longitudinal leaf spring
Rear: Vertical volute spring
Front: Steel ventilated disc
Rear: 1 bogie/track;
4 dual/bogie
1 dual/track
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
18-tooth front drive Spring-loaded at rear of track On front wheels
M16A1: Track
Center guide band type
Width 12"
30cm
Pitch 4"
10cm
Pitches/track 58 Track ground contact length 46.75"
118.7cm
M16A1: Performance
Max level road speed 45mph
72kph
Max grade 60%
Max vertical obstacle 12"
30cm
Min turning diameter 59'
18m
Max fording depth 32"
81cm
Cruising range ~200mi, roads
~320km, roads

M16A1s were converted from M3 half-tracks during the Korean War. These vehicles were fitted with a large folding shield on the front of the gun mount to protect crewmen when servicing the weapons. The M45F mount sat on a 6" (15cm) ring to enable the weapons to fire over the unhinged sides of the converted M3 half-tracks. The rear door present on the M3 was not deleted in the conversion to M16A1. M16A1 also introduced an intercom system between the commander and gunner, and a field telephone mounted on the rear of the vehicle.

Four hundred nineteen M16s were converted to M16A1 standard, accepting the M45F mount and with the addition of a rear door. These vehicles were designated M16A2.

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References

  1. Hunnicutt, R.P. Half-Track: A History of American Semi-tracked Vehicles. Navato, CA: Presidio Press, 2001. Reprinted from Half-Track, R.P. Hunnicutt ©2001, available from Presidio Press, 505B San Martin Drive, Suite 160, Navato, CA 94945.
  2. TM 9-223 Twin Cal. .50 Machine Gun Mount M33 and Multiple Cal. .50 Machine Gun Mount M45. Washington, DC: War Department, 27 July 1944.
  3. TM 9-1223 Ordnance Maintenance--Twin Cal. .50 Machine Gun Mount M33 and Multiple Cal. .50 Machine Gun Mount M45. Washington, DC: War Department, 1 June 1944.
  4. Doyle, David. U.S. Half-tracks: The Development and Deployment of the U.S. Army's Half-track Based Multiple Gun Motor Carriages and Gun Motor Carriages, Part two. Ed. Pat Stansell. Delray Beach, FL: The Ampersand Publishing Group, Inc., 2016.
  5. Crismon, Fred W. U.S. Military Tracked Vehicles. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1992.
  6. TM 9-2800 Standard Military Motor Vehicles. Washington, DC: War Dept., 1 Sep 1943.
  7. Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War Two. Frome, England: Cassell & Co., 2000.
  8. SNL G-102 Service Parts Catalog for Cars, Half-track, M2 and M2A1; Carriers, Personnel, Half-track, M3 and M3A1; Carriages, Motor, 75-mm Gun, M3 and M3A1; Carriers, 81-mm Mortar, Half-track, M4 and M4A1; Carrier, 81-mm Mortar, Half-track, M21; Carriage, Motor, Multiple Gun, M13; Carriages, Motor, Multiple Gun, M15 and M15A1; Carriage, Motor, Multiple Gun, M16; Carriage, Motor, 105-mm Howitzer, T19; Carriage, Motor, 75-mm Howitzer, T30; Carriage, Motor, 57-mm Gun, T48. 30 September 1943.
  9. Siemers, Cary. "USA's Half Track Gun Motor/Mortar Carriages." World War II Tanks & Vehicles and Advanced Squad Leader. 4 Jul 2001. 22 Sep 2001 <http://www.siemers.com/wwii/USA/GunMotorCarriage.htm>.

Last updated 2 Oct 2021.
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© Copyright 2001-21 Chris Conners