Universal Carrier T161-7

T16: General
Date of first acceptance March 1943 Total acceptances 19,607 T16 and T16E2
  • Ford Motor Co.
  • War Supplies, Ltd.
Crew 4 men
T16: Dimensions
Combat weight (gross with payload) ~10,500lbs
Height 61"
Length 155.125"
Width 83.5"
Tread 61.5"
Ground clearance 10.5"
Ground pressure 7.4psi
T16: Armament
Type Mount Traverse Elevation
Bren light machine gun Mount in hull left front Manual Manual
T16: Armor
Location Thickness
Upper front .21875"
Lower front .28125"
Sides .28125"
Rear .28125"
Floor .28125"
T16: Automotive
Engine Ford GAU; 8 cylinder, 4 cycle, 90° L-head vee gasoline
Horsepower Net: 102.5@4,000rpm Torque 176 ft-lb@2,000rpm Fuel capacity 23.6gal
Transmission Spur gear, 4 speeds forward, 1 reverse
Steering Controlled differential, steering levers
T16: Suspension
Type Road wheels Track return rollers
Coil spring 2 bogies/track;
2 wheels/bogie
Drive sprockets Idlers Shock absorbers
35-tooth rear drive Adjustable at front of each track None
T16: Track
Outside guide, single pin, cast steel
Width 10"
Pitch 1.75"
Shoes/track 174 Ground contact length 71"
T16: Performance
Max level road speed 30mph sustained
50kph sustained
Max trench 30"
Max grade 60% Max vertical obstacle 18"
Min turning diameter 32'
Max fording depth Floats
Cruising range ~100-150mi

The T16 was a modification of the British universal carrier. The vehicle was originally designated as the cargo carrier T16, but was renamed as the universal carrier T16 to avoid discrepancy with British nomenclature. Differences from the British vehicle included a simplified hull design, a different engine and steering system, and a redesigned suspension and track. The British vehicle ran on a two-wheeled bogie and a single independently sprung wheel on each side, while the T16 featured two two-wheeled bogies per side with the springs facing the opposite directions. The T16 used a conventional controlled differential and steering levers to steer as opposed to the British vehicle's steering wheel and track bending system. A 1,200lb (540kg) payload was specified. No carriers were issued to the US Army, but 19,193 were given to Allies through Lend-Lease. They found its reliability suspect for much of World War II.

Starting in 1945, the T16E2 entered production. This vehicle was longer overall and designed for more stability. The orientation of the rear bogie was reversed on the T16E2 so that both of the springs were pointing the same way. The front bogie was moved back 6" (15cm), the rear bogie was moved 9" (23cm) to the rear, and the drive axle was moved 8" (20cm) back. The T16E2 was 162" (411cm) long, and had a 77" (200cm) ground contact length yielding a 6.8psi (.48kg/cm²) ground pressure. Fuel capacity was raised to 27.8gal (105L), and the front armor was increased to a maximum of .390625" (.992188cm).




  1. Catalogue of Standard Ordnance Items, 2nd edition 1944, volume 1. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Ordnance Technical Division, 1 June 1945.
  2. TM 9-746 Universal Carrier T16. Washington, DC: War Department, 11 August 1943.
  3. ORD 9 SNL G-166 Service Parts Catalogue for Carrier, Universal, T16. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Army Service Forces, 1 April 1944.
  4. Hunnicutt, R.P. Bradley: A History of American Fighting and Support Vehicles. Navato, CA: Presidio Press, 1999. Reprinted with permission from Bradley, R.P. Hunnicutt ©1999, available from Presidio Press, 505B San Martin Drive, Suite 160, Navato, CA 94945.
  5. Chamberlain, Peter, and Duncan Crow. Carriers. Ed. Duncan Crow. Windsor, England: Profile Publications, Ltd.
  6. TM 9-2800 Standard Military Motor Vehicles. Washington, DC: War Department, 1 September 1943.
  7. Crismon, Fred W. U.S. Military Tracked Vehicles. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1992.
Last updated 1 Feb 2021.
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