This M4A1 Sherman has been fitted with the rocket launcher T72. This apparatus carried sixty 4.5" (11cm) spin-stabilized rockets, and although the rockets were too inaccurate for engaging point targets the launcher was very useful for area saturation. Azimuth aim was accomplished by traversing the turret, and elevating the tank's gun elevated the T72 as well thanks to the connecting arm. The smooth curves of the M4A1's cast hull are obvious, and contrast starkly to the tanks below. The plate above the middle suspension bogie is applique armor welded to the tank to provide more protection to the left sponson ammunition stowage rack. The gun mount on this tank is the early M34, which had separate shields for the 75mm gun and coaxial machine gun. (Picture courtesy Armor Foto.)
This rear view of an M4A1 illustrates differentiation points it shares with the M4. The rear hull plate has a shallow horseshoe shape, and the bottom half of one of the engine's air cleaners is visible at the top corner. The twin engine access doors are open in this picture, and stowage for the idler wheel adjusting wrench and sledge hammer is obvious. The hole in the rear armor above the idler adjusting wrench was for insertion of the engine's hand crank, and a stowage bracket for the hand crank is above and to the left of the idler wrench. The square muffler tailpipes are visible protruding from under the armor plate. The engine air inlet cover and its protective armor splash guard are near the turret, and the left-side hinge for the solid rear deck engine access door is just to the rear of the air inlet cover. The engine in the M4A1 and M4 was tilted to the rear, and the propellor shaft ran under the turret to the transmission in the front of the tank. (Picture courtesy C.G. Erickson.)
This tank presents an interesting mix of early and late production features. It has the single-piece final drive and differential housing but retains the drivers' direct vision slots. The guard on the hull front in front of the driver was to protect the siren when it was mounted, and the vertical vane sight is visible on the turret roof in front of the commander's position. This would help roughly line the turret up with a target.
A closer view of the assistant driver's direct vision slot is provided here. The covers were opened and closed by means of an interior handle.
This M4A2 example has been fitted with a British 17 pounder OQF (note the round double baffle muzzle brake). No Sherman IIIs were so modified by the British; this tank may have been an American test vehicle, or perhaps the museum simply stuck an extra turret into a weaponless hull for display purposes. Since this is a welded-hull Sherman, the hull lines are sharp, not like the rounded appearance of the Sherman II's cast hull. The smooth rubber T51 tracks are readily evident on this tank, as is the bolted three-piece final drive and differential housing at the front of the hull. This Sherman III has the 56° glacis with early drivers' direct vision slots. There is an antenna base next to the assistant driver's position, and two ventilators sit at the top front corners of the hull. The vertical volute spring suspension bogies are also clearly visible with this view. The tank's coaxial machine gun would emerge from the aperture to the left of the 17pdr, and the gunner's telescope looked through the hole in the right of the gun shield. The bow machine gun mount is also present; this would have been eliminated on an actual Firefly.
The layout of the rear of the M4A2 is shown here. The rear plate reaches below the sponsons, and bolts form a "T" on the rear plate. The exhaust deflector is below the rear plate between the idler wheels, and the track adjusting wrench is stowed on the rear plate. (Picture from TM 9-731B Medium Tank M4A2.)
The M4A2's rear deck fixtures are illustrated here. Note the engine grille doors are approximately as wide as the turret bustle; similar grilles on the M4A3 ran all the way to the sponsons. (Picture from TM 9-731B Medium Tank M4A2.)
A cross-sectional view of the M4A2's is provided in this image. (Picture from TM 9-731B Medium Tank M4A2.)
Ammunition stowage is detailed here. The need for the wet ammunition restowage that premiered in 1944 can be seen, as there was plentiful main gun ammunition behind the vulnerable sponson armor. (Picture from TM 9-731B Medium Tank M4A2.)
The Sherman's gyrostabilizer control and gear boxes are shown here. The stabilizer was to be used only when the tank was in motion, and to protect the batteries the auxiliary generator was to be run while the stabilizer or power traversing mechanisms were being used. The tank's speed was to be held as constant as possible and the engine was to be run at full governed speed when the stabilizer was on. Lower gears were to be used if lower speeds were desired while still running the engine at its maximum rpm. (Picture from TM 9-731B Medium Tank M4A2.)
The gyrostabilizer connected to the gun mount via this hydraulic cylinder. (Picture from TM 9-731B Medium Tank M4A2.)
The right side of the Ford GAA engine is shown here. (Picture from TM 9-759 Medium Tank M4A3.)
This sectionalized view shows the interior arrangement of the tank. Note the propellor shaft running underneath the turret from the engine to the front-mounted transmission. This feature, common to all Shermans, had much to do with their height, especially since tanks with taller radial engines were designed first. (Picture from TM 9-759 Medium Tank M4A3.)
The driver's position is shown here. The transmission is directly to his right. (Picture from TM 9-759 Medium Tank M4A3.)
This cutaway turret shows the location of the 2" smoke mortar as well as the loader's periscope. The coaxial machine gun is obvious, and the radio is visible in the rear of the turret. A submachine gun is stowed above the radio.
The bottom of the gunner's seat is visible in this picture, along with the turret ring. The underside of the white-painted gearbox for the hydraulic traversing mechanism can be seen along the turret race, with the rusty shifter lever attached to its underside. The green box houses the turret master switch and reset buttons, and the hydraulic traverse control handle can be seen above the coiled yellow cord.
The final drive and differential cover has been cut away in this view. The steering brake can be seen outboard of the controlled differential gearing.
The right-hand final drive is shown here. The splined shaft would connect to the controlled differential, and the drive sprocket would attach to the hub at the opposite end.
This is a late-production M4 from the Detroit Tank Arsenal, as evidenced by the composite cast/welded hull. The tank's siren is next to the left headlight cluster, behind its own guard, and the ventilators are visible at the top corners of the front hull. The vane sight and spotlight attachment are visible on top of the turret. (Picture from Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Vol. 6, 11, and 14.)
This rear view shows the engine access doors in the lower hull rear and the general shape of the upper rear armor. Compared to the cast M4A1 above, the rear plate is angled instead of curved. (Picture from Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Vol. 6, 11, and 14.)
Details of an early turret are shown here. This turret lacks the loader's hatch. (Picture from TM 9-1750K Ordnance Maintenance--Tracks and Suspension, Turret and Hull for Medium Tank M4 and Modifications.)
Parts of the suspension bogie are labeled in this image. (Picture from TM 9-1750K Ordnance Maintenance--Tracks and Suspension, Turret and Hull for Medium Tank M4 and Modifications.)
Compared to other Shermans, the bogies on the M4A4 were spaced farther apart to compensate for the extended hull necessitated by the large A57 engine. (Picture from D-10649 Part II, Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Volume IX.)
The need for the bulges in the engine compartment deck and floor can be seen in this sectional view; the engine's fan and radiators would not have otherwise fit. Note that the hull has not been lengthened to scale in this image. The difference can be contrasted with the picture above. (Picture from Catalogue of Standard Ordnance Items, second edition 1944, volume I: Tank and Automotive.)
Distinctive features of the rear of the M4A4 Sherman can be seen here. Immediately apparent is the radiator bulge in the deck. The M4A4 was built with two engine access doors in the rear hull; the single cover plate seen here was not standard. The radio bustle is apparent in the turret rear, along with antenna mounts in the roof of the turret, and a pistol port is visible on the turret's left side.
A closer view of the extended engine deck shows the filler cap in the center of the bulge over the radiator.
This image shows one of the first 1303 multibank A57 engines manufactured for the M4A4. These, along with all of the engines for the M3A4 Lee, had a water pump for each engine. These engines had the generator mounted on engine 2 and driven by that engine's water pump belt. The fuel pump was found on the distributor end of the crankcase and was driven by the accessory shaft. The first 3210 M4A4 engines had thermostats in the cooling system mounted in each engine's water outlet adapter. The rest of the engines had a bypass-type thermostat mounted in the cylinder head adapter of engine 1 and the radiator inlet adapter of engines 2-5. The first 3411 M4A4 engines used a fully-enclosed clutch, followed by a ventilated clutch in later engines.
The legend of this image is as follows: A. Cleaner, air, crankcase ventilator, assembly. B. Pump, water, assembly (no. 1 engine). C. Plate, engine lifter and step, assembly. D. Filter, oil, with clamp, assembly. E. Tube, water pump air relief (engine no. 1 to no. 5). F. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 5 engine). G. Pipe, exhaust (nos. 4 and 5 engines). H. Tube, fuel pump to branch connection, assembly (for nos. 4 and 5 carburetors). I. Connection, water pump air relief. J. Tube, fuel pump to no. 1 carburetor, assembly. K. Pump, water, assembly (no. 5 engine). L. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 5 engine). M. Plate, serial number, engine. N. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 3 engine). O. Tube, fuel pump to branch connection, assembly (for nos. 2 and 3 carburetors). P. Tube, water pump air relief (engine no. 4 to no. 5). Q. Tube, radiator outlet, assembly (nos. 4 and 5 engines). R. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 4 engine). S. Pump, water, assembly (no. 4 engine). T. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 4 engine). U. Pump, fuel, assembly. V. Support, engine, rear. W. Pan, oil, assembly. X. Plug, drain, oil pan. Y. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 3 engine). Z. Pump, water, assembly (no. 3 engine). AA. Tube, radiator outlet, assembly (nos. 2 and 3 engines). BB. Cock, drain, cylinder water jacket, assembly. CC. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 2 engine). DD. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 1 engine). EE. Tube, water pump air relief (engine no. 2 to no. 3). FF. Pump, water, assembly (no. 2 engine). GG. Connection, radiator outlet tube, assembly (no. 1 engine). HH. Gear, reduction, tachometer drive, assembly. II. Generator, assembly. JJ. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 1 engine). KK. Pipe, exhaust (nos. 1, 2, and 3 engines). LL. Tube, water pump air relief (engine no. 1 to no. 2). (Picture from TM 9-1750F Ordnance Maintenance--Power Unit for Medium Tanks M3A4 and M4A4.)
Later A57 engines used a single water pump, which simplified maintenance. In tanks with these engines, the generator was found in the fighting compartment and driven by the propeller shaft via a belt. The fuel pump was on the distributor end of engine no. 4 and driven by the camshaft.
The legend of this image is as follows: A. Cock, drain, engine cylinder water jacket, assembly (engine no. 1). B. Block, engine cylinder (engine no. 1). C. Harness, engine wiring, assembly. D. Tube, outlet, oil filter assembly. E. Unit, sending, engine oil pressure warning indicator. F. Cock, drain, engine cylinder water jacket, assembly (engine no. 5). G. Tube, outlet, radiator, right, assembly. H. Tube, outlet, water pump, assembly (engine no. 4). I. Pump, fuel, assembly. J. Cock, drain, engine cylinder water jacket, assembly (engine no. 4). K. Support, engine, rear. L. Plug, drain, oil pan. M. Plate, name, engine serial number. N. Cock, drain, engine cylinder water jacket, assembly (engine no. 3). O. Tube, outlet, water pump, assembly (engine no. 3). P. Tube, outlet, radiator, left, assembly. Q. Cock, drain, engine cylinder water jacket, assembly (engine no. 2). R. Tube, outlet, water pump, assembly (engine no. 2). S. Pump, water, assembly. T. Fitting, grease, water pump body. U. Tube, outlet, water pump, assembly (engine no. 5). V. Connection, main branch, fuel pump to carburetor tube, assembly. W. Tube, overflow, radiator, assembly. X. Tube, outlet, water pump, assembly (engine no. 1). (Picture from TM 9-1750F Ordnance Maintenance--Power Unit for Medium Tanks M3A4 and M4A4.)
The increased space between the bogies on this M4A6 is similar to that found on the M4A4. The weld line showing where the cast upper front hull was attached to the rest of the hull is apparent as it slopes downward and forward from behind the drivers' hatches, just in front of the applique armor welded over the sponson ammunition rack. The bulge on the rear deck can be seen just behind the guard for the fuel filler cap. The 75mm gun on this tank is secured in the travel lock. (Picture from Development of Armored Vehicles, volume 1: Tanks.)
The front of the RD-1820 engine is seen here. (Picture from TM 9-1756A Ordnance Maintenance--Ordnance Engine Model RD-1820 (Caterpillar).)
Details of the rear of the engine are shown in this image. (Picture from TM 9-1756A Ordnance Maintenance--Ordnance Engine Model RD-1820 (Caterpillar).)
The wet ammunition stowage rendered the applique armor applied over the ammunition racks of earlier tanks redundant. The second set of drivers' periscopes that replaced the earlier direct vision slots are also visible from this angle. (Picture from Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Volume 15.)
The rear of this tank illustrates how the rear armor plate comes below the sponson line (below the attachment points for the sandshields), and the exhaust deflector is fitted below the rear overhang. Stowage brackets for the .50cal machine gun are present on the turret bustle. Stowage on the rear of the tank includes track shoes and towing equipment. (Picture from Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Volume 15.)
The shorter, thicker barrel on this tank's ordnance indicates that it is a 105mm howitzer tank. (Picture from Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Vol. 6, 11, and 14.)
The rear deck features common to the M4A1 and M4 are visible in this image . (Picture from FM 17-76 Crew Drill and Service of the Piece, Medium Tank, M4 Series (105-mm Howitzer).).)
When comparing 76mm gun tanks with the 75mm gun tanks, the new turret borrowed from the medium tank T23 is an obvious difference. A new gun travel lock was also needed for the longer weapon. The stowage brackets for the .50cal machine gun can be glimpsed on the turret bustle. (Picture from Standard Nomenclature List G-104, Volume 15.)
The extra armor welded to the glacis of this Jumbo Sherman is immediately apparent, along with the new turret and very thick gun shield.
Fixtures such as headlights and sirens have been omitted from the hull front, however the bow machine gun was retained. This tank lacks the extended end connectors on its T48 tracks which helped to reduce ground pressure.
The shape of the new turret and extra armor welded to the gun shield can be seen in this view.
This view is of the right side of the turret. The commander's seat is visible, and the gunner's seat, if present, would be in front of and below the TC's seat. The gunner's red turret traverse handle is near the front of the picture, and the white turret traverse hand lever can just been seen near the top of the picture. The black device near the turret ring is the gunner's azimuth indicator. Stowage in the right sponson included three water cans in the compartment in the center of the picture. The hexagonal hole through which the turret ring is visible would normally be covered by the traverse lock.
This is a more detailed view of the gunner's station. The azimuth indicator is on the far right, the red turret traverse handle is visible again, and the white traverse hand lever can be seen in front of the azimuth indicator. The elevating handwheel has a red handgrip, and the 75mm gun can be seen in the upper left. The turret control box is positioned above the gunner's controls to the front.
M4A3E2s featured wet ammunition stowage, and an open ammunition rack is illustrated here. The driver's seat is in front of this ammo rack.
The driver's position is the subject of this photo. The driver and assistant driver were separated by the transmission assembly. The two steering levers can be just seen in front of the driver's seat, and his instrument panel is to the left. The rusted gearshift lever is just to the right of the driver's seat, and the black knob to the right of the steering levers is the hand throttle. The four brackets above the transmission itself were for stowing extra periscopes; spare periscope heads could be stored in the box below the periscopes themselves. Between the drivers on the hull roof is a ventilator fan. The ball mount for the bow machine gun can be seen in the front hull plate on the right of the picture.
This Easy Eight Sherman is armed with the 76mm gun M1A1C or M1A2, both of which were fitted with muzzle brakes. In the center of the 47° glacis is the gun travel lock, and the sharp-nosed single-piece final drive and differential cover is mounted. The tracks on this vehicle are the double-pin T84. Compared with the early M4A1 Sherman above, later Sherman tanks are almost unrecognizable.
This view shows the exhaust deflector fitted to the GAA-engined Shermans. This tank also has some sections of track mounted incorrectly.
This M4A3(105) HVSS Sherman illustrates the horizontal volute spring suspension well. The dual road wheels, horizontal volute springs, and shock absorbers directly above the springs are all obvious. The extended fenders that were necessary to cover the wider suspension and tracks are also apparent. The rear plate reaches below the sponson line, but lacked the bolts that were present on M4A2's rear plate. The tracks on "Betty Boop" are the T80 double-pin rubber and steel models. This tank uses the 47° one-piece glacis, and the edges of its welded hull are sharp. (Picture courtesy the Kenosha Military Museum.)
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