The M41 was a tidy and handsome design. This is a later-production machine, as evidenced by the low turret weld line, angled fenders, and muffler for the auxiliary generator engine on the right front fender. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The mufflers for the main engine can be seen on the rear fenders, and the turret bustle stowage box is also obvious from this angle. Lifting rings are just inboard of the taillights. A towing pintle bracket protrudes centrally from the lower rear hull, with a towing lug on each side. The armored case for the external interphone equipment AN/VIA-1 is mounted just inboard of the right-hand lifting ring. This allowed infantry to communicate with the crew of the tank. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The shape of the turret and its long bustle accentuated by the turret stowage box are highlighted in this top view. Stowage boxes line both fenders, and the auxiliary generator engine muffler can be seen inboard of the pioneer tool rack. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
This stowed tank has its turret reversed and its main gun secured in its travel lock. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
This view is looking down into the open driver's hatch. Light is coming through his periscopes, and to his right, from top to bottom, are the cam-actuated lever for opening and closing his hatch; switchboxes for the personnel heater, bilge pump, and light controls; and the personnel heater duct.
The driver's controls are labeled in this image. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
This is the driver's position of the M41 as seen from the turret. The hand throttle is visible just above the left-hand instrument cluster, and the early-style steering crossbar is in the middle of the picture. The handles for the crossbar are black and descend vertically from the ends of the crossbar's horizontal member. The black handle behind the crossbar is the primer pump. The accelerator pedal is just visible to the right of the primer pump handle. The white handles hanging down from the top of the picture are the mounting clamp levers for the driver's M17 periscopes.
Details of the 76mm gun mount are shown here. A concentric hydrospring recoil mechanism was used in this mount. The recoil cylinder, which was full of hydraulic oil when ready for use, was formed by the inside of the cradle and the outside of the gun tube enclosed by the cradle. The recoil piston is keyed to the gun tube near the cradle's front, and the counterrecoil spring coiled around the gun tube between the recoil piston and the rear of the cradle. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
The gun mount M76 is seen from the right. The M76 had an attaching surface for the elevating cylinder, and used the telescope mount M92. The complete 76mm gun M32 weighed 1,709lb (775.2kg). (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
An exploded view of the breech is shown here. After the breechblock was moved the the open position, the breech was semiautomatic where an opening cam and operating crank opened the breech and extracted the expended casing during counterrecoil. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
Parts of the breechblock are shown in this image. An inertia-type percussion mechanism found in the breechblock fired the gun. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
The construction of the fabricated T-shaped muzzle brake is highlighted here. The gun's bore evacuator is directly behind the muzzle brake. The muzzle brake weighed 25lb (11kg).
The bore evacuator chamber has been removed, revealing three of the seven bore evacuator inserts. Jets in the inserts allowed some of the propellant gases to flow into the bore evacuator chamber as the fired round passed the jets, increasing the pressure in the chamber. When the round left the gun tube, the pressure reduction in the gun tube allowed the high pressure gases in the bore evacuator chamber to flow out through the inserts and subsequently through the gun's muzzle, recreating the flow of residual gases toward the muzzle before the breech was opened by the gun's counterrecoil action. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
At the right front hull was a 33-round 76mm ammunition rack. The turret is reversed on this tank, with the main gun in travel lock. On the floor of the vehicle, two of the suspending torsion bars are visible. The opposite wheels on the M41, along with most vehicles suspended by torsion bars, are slightly offset, and it is visible why here. The bars run the width of the hull, and force the wheels to be mounted slightly ahead of one another.
A more detailed view of the hull ammunition rack is presented here. Thirty-three rounds were stowed in the hull, and they were held in place by the retaining plates at the front of each tube.
This picture is looking backwards into the tank from the open driver's hatch. The driver's seat--minus its backrest--can be seen at the bottom, and to the left of the image are the driver's control boxes. A torsion bar cover is directly behind the driver's seat, and the turret floor can be seen behind and above the torsion bar cover. We can tell that the tank is an M41/M41A2 by the pulsing relay traversing mechanisms on the turret floor; the Cadillac turret and gun control system found in the M41A1/M41A3 was more compact and there were consequently more horizontal ammunition racks on the turret floor. Some round stands for the ready rack can be seen on the turret floor, but not all are present. The tank would have come with a total of 11, and most of the row of stands near the edge of the floor are missing.
A closer view of the pulsing relay box seen in the previous photo is provided here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The voluminous hydraulic powerpack of the pulsing relay control system is seen here from the control side. Mounted on the turret basket floor under the tank commander, it consisted of a variable displacement hydraulic pump, a 5hp electric motor, and an oil reservoir. On the upper turret race ring forward of the gunner was the traversing gearbox, which contained the hydraulic motor and gearing that transmitted the traversing power to the turret lower race ring. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
Visible here are the gunner's controls of the pulsing relay gun control system. The shiny black handle of the elevation hand pump is obvious in the center of the picture, and the traverse hand drive handle is positioned to the upper right of the photo behind the padded arm guard. The telescope cover control handle is painted white and is above and to the front of the elevating pump, but the telescope itself is missing from this vehicle.
The gunner's controls are shown here. The dump valve toggle switch allowed the gunner to traverse the turret manually while the turret motor was on. The pulsing relay system connected the gunner's elevation control handle to the gun via an hydraulic pump and cylinder. Rotating the handle clockwise elevated the gun, and vice-versa. The accumulator handle was connected to a pump that charged the manual elevation system. The legend is as follows: A. Manual traversing control handle. B. Power control handle. C. Manual elevation control handle. D. Turret control box. E. Telescope M97. F. Rear bracket. G. Boresight clamp lever. H. Azimuth boresight knob. I. Elevation boresight knob. J. Azimuth indicator. K. Dump valve toggle switch. L. Firing trigger. M. Firing trigger. N. Accumulator handle. O. Accumulator. P. Manual safety. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
Another view of the gunner's position is provided here. The gunner's and commander's power traversing control handles energized the electrical system that displaced the hydraulic pump slideblock, which then began pumping action in the pump, which flowed oil that operated the hydraulic motor, thereby traversing the turret. Elevation was via manually operated hydraulic power. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
These instruments are above and to the right of those featured in the above picture. The white gun firing control box is mounted to the turret side wall, and to the front of this is the gunner's M20 sighting periscope. The gun firing control box had on/off toggle switches for, front to rear, the 76mm gun, the coaxial machine gun, and "automatic," which energized the electric motor in the hydraulic power traversing and elevating powerpack. The handle above the traverse hand drive handle is the gunner's power traverse handle. The switch just to the left of the power traverse handle is the hydraulic dump valve toggle switch.
The tank commander was provided with a handle to traverse the turret, and the override lever allowed the commander to take control of the turret from the gunner. The commander had no elevation control, however. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
The loader's side of the turret is shown here. The box on the turret wall above the 76mm ready rack is the loader's safety switch. After the main gun had been fired and reloaded, the loader was required to push the button on the lower front of the box for the gun to be fired again. The indicator light above the switch glowed when the gun was ready to fire. This system prevented the gun from firing while the loader was in the way of the recoil. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The ballistics drive M4 allowed superelevation to be introduced for the range to the target and ammunition being used. The range drum was manually rotated to the estimated range, and the lines of sight of the sighting periscopes were raised or lowered accordingly. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
A Detroit Diesel A-41-1 or A-41-2 single-cylinder, air-cooled gasoline engine was connected to a Delco A-8585 300-ampere, 27.5-volt, direct current generator. The generator could be used to start the auxiliary engine, and a cable pull-type starter was also provided. With the generator, the engine weighed 393lb (178kg) dry. The unit was used to recharge the tank's batteries, provide power to electrical systems while the main engine was off, supplement the current generated by the main engine, and heat the engine compartment during cold weather.
A. Exhaust outlet. B. Lifting eye. C. Cylinder head. D. Carburetor. E. Carburetor guard. F. Fuel filter. G. Union-to-fuel filter line. H. Crankcase vent tube. J. Oil filter. K. Governor. L. Oil filter tube. M. Low oil pressure warning light switch. N. Oil filter inlet tube. P. Front panel. Q. Hand starter handle. R. Fuel line mounting bracket. S. Flexible fuel line. T. Right panel. U. Exhaust manifold cover. V. Heat exchanger. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The auxiliary engine is shown here mounted in the front right corner of the engine compartment. As illustrated, starting with vehicle Ordnance serial no.2507, the auxiliary engines were modified by moving the fuel filter and adding an electric fuel pump to reduce the chances of vapor lock during operations in high temperatures. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
This photo shows the first location of the smaller auxiliary generator engine muffler, on the right main engine muffler. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The early auxiliary generator engine muffler is present on this machine. (Picture courtesy Joe Wallace.)
This tank has been fitted with the later, larger auxiliary engine muffler usually found mounted on the right front fender. Mounts for the larger muffler have been welded to the main engine muffler cover fore and aft of the mount for the earlier, smaller muffler.
The tubing snaking into the exhaust shroud for the auxiliary engine is shown here.
The larger auxiliary generator engine muffler is installed in its final position on the right front fender. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The left rear of the carbureted engine is shown here. One double-venturi downdraft carburetor was provided for each bank of three cylinders. The engine's oil pan had an 11 gallon (42L) capacity. Including the flywheel assembly, the engine was 47.43" (120.5cm) long, 51.56" (131.0cm) wide, 34.81" (88.42cm) tall, and had a dry weight of 1894lb (859.1kg) including the flywheel and all accessories. (Picture from TM 9-1730A Continental 6-cylinder Engine Model AOS-895-3.)
An exploded view of the tank's transmission is shown here. (Picture from TM 9-1730B Cross-Drive Transmission Models CD-500-3 and -4 (Allison and GM).)
The azimuth indicator M31 is displayed here. Meshed with the turret ring, it assisted the gunner in laying the ordnance for indirect fire. The azimuth scale was graduated in 100-mil intervals and the dial read from 0 to 3200 mils in each direction. The micrometer scale was graduated counterclockwise in 1-mil increments from 0 to 100. The gunner's aid dial was graduated in 1-mil increments and the dial read from 1 to 50 in each direction. The device was fitted with a directional pointer that was fixed along the longitudinal axis of the hull and showed on the azimuth scale how much the gun had traversed from the hull's longitudinal axis. The azimuth and micrometer pointers could be set to zero with the resetter knob when the sights were set on a desired reference. When the gun was traversed from that reference, the sum of the pointers showed the amount of traverse. The gunner's aid dial could be rotated until its zero matched the micrometer pointer, and then right and left corrections could be made from the gunner's aid dial. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
This is a later-production M41A1, as evidenced by the turret's low side weld line, angled fenders, T-shaped muzzle brake, and the placement of the auxiliary generator engine muffler on the front right fender. Just outboard of the small muffler is the pioneer tool stowage rack. The gunner's and commander's periscope guards are visible on the right side of the turret, and the mount for the .50cal MG is beside the commander's cupola. The locking pins for the driver's hatch are positioned on the tank's glacis to the right of his door.
The gun mount M76A1 mounted an elevating mechanism on the right side, and the telescope mount M92A1 was attached to the elevating mechanism rather than the gun cradle, as on the gun mount M76. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
An overview of the gunner's position as viewed from the commander's position is provided in this picture. The compactness of the traversing mechanism compared to the pulsing relay system is apparent. A. Traversing electric motor switch. B. Dome light. C. Periscope mount guard. D. Commander's periscope protective pad. E. Periscope M20 (T35) or M20A1 (commander's). F. Vision block. G. Commander's control handle. H. Commander's control handle linkage. J. Gun firing control box. K. Commander's elevating control box. L. Gunner's power traversing handwheel. M. Traversing mechanism. N. Traversing hand drive assembly. P. Traversing mechanism nameplate. Q. Azimuth indicator M31 (T24). R. Gunner's seat backrest. S. Gunner's seat. T. Commander's seat. U. Commander's leg guard. V. 76-mm gun breech. W. Elevating mechanism. X. Gunner's elevating handwheel. Y. Turret traversing lock. Z. Telescope mount M92A1 (T178E1). AA. Telescope mount M92A1 (T178E1) bracket assembly. BB. Telescope cover control handle. CC. Telescope M97 (T156). DD. Elevating handwheel tension adjusting knob. EE. Oil filler plug. FF. Drain plug. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The gunner's power traverse control wheel controlled the turret traverse with the Cadillac-designed turret and gun control system. If the wheel was rotated clockwise the turret traversed to the right, and vice-versa. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
The gunner's elevation control wheel was located to his left; counterclockwise rotation raised the gun and vice-versa. The Cadillac-designed system used a rack and gear connected to the handwheel through a differential to elevate and depress the gun. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
A closer view of the elevation handwheel is provided here. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The tank commander was provided with both traverse and elevation control with the Cadillac system. Traverse was accomplished by moving the butt of his handle in the desired direction; elevation was accomplished by moving the handle forward and depression by moving it to the rear. In contrast to the pulsing relay system, the gun control box with the Cadillac turret control system had on/off toggle switches for the 76mm gun, the coaxial machine gun, and the power elevation circuit. The elevation switch on the gun control box had to be activated before the TC could elevate the gun. (Picture from FM 17-80 Tanks, 76-mm Gun, M41 and M41A1.)
With the Cadillac traversing mechanism being self-contained at the gunner's station, the space around the turret slip ring box was used to stow more main gun ammunition. Twenty-one rounds were stowed in the M41A1's turret racks, compared to thirteen in those in the M41. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
This tank is the subject of the following detail photos. It shares some features with the vehicle above, including angled fenders and mounting the auxiliary engine muffler (which is not present) on the front fender. The interior of the fender stowage box is visible as its cover is missing as well. The Audi TT provides some scale to the size of the vehicle.
This is the corroded driver's hatch of the Moundsville tank. The handle is obvious, and the circular opening is for installation of the M19 infrared periscope. Daytime view for the driver was provided by four M17 periscopes, which covered an arc of approximately 270°. The door lock can be seen at the top center of the photo, and the locking pins are welded to the front hull plate.
The left-side position of the driver is apparent in this view of the tank's front hull. Lifting eyes and towing lugs are welded to the upper and lower plates, respectively, and the positions of the headlight mountings are visible. This tank is wired for the later-production headlight assemblies, which included an infrared blackout headlight for use with the M19 periscope. The aperture in gun shield's left-hand side is for the coaxial machine gun.
This right front view shows the location of the pioneer tool rack. Just inboard of the pioneer tool rack, a mounting clamp for the auxiliary engine muffler is visible. Behind this, snaking back to the rear of the tank, is the flexible exhaust tube that led from the auxiliary engine to its muffler.
Featured in this picture is the auxiliary generator engine exhaust shroud. It was located at the right front of the main engine compartment, and its muffler was originally located to the rear on the main engine muffler, until it was realized that heat from the main engine muffler damaged the auxiliary muffler. The flexible exhaust tubing can be seen leading towards the front of the tank, where the auxiliary engine mufflers were then relocated. In front of the exhaust shroud is a fender stowage box; behind this is the right-hand main engine muffler shield.
The travel lock for the 76mm gun is visible folded to the rear on the tank's left-side fender, and the main engine mufflers are obvious on each fender. The access cover in the middle of the centrally-placed transmission rear access door was for filling the transmission oil. The rear of the turret is dominated by the large stowage box. Fixtures on the bottom rear of the tank include towing lugs flanking the central towing pintle, and just inboard of the right-hand final drive is the interphone equipment case. The taillights are mounted just outside of the rear lifting eyes.
Various grilles and doors on the hull rear are labeled in this picture. The armored box for the infantry interphone can be better seen as well. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
This picture illustrates the idler wheel connecting link assembly. The linkage transferred vertical motion of the front road wheels to the compensating idler wheels in order to keep the track tension constant. On tanks from Ordnance serial no.2612 and after, rubber tires were added to the compensating wheels, which necessitated adding an extra track shoe to each side.
The compensating idler and first dual road wheels have been removed in this image. Track tension was adjusted by turning the adjusting nut in or out with a bespoke wrench. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The road wheels on the M41 were mounted on trailing arms. These wheels are on the tank's left side, and behind the wheel itself is visible the volute spring bumper stop that limited wheel amplitude and prevented damage from over-rotation. To the rear, a shock absorber can be seen angling up from the last road wheel.
The second left dual road wheel has been dismounted, allowing a view of its hub and various components normally hidden behind the wheel. (Picture from TM 9-2350-201-12.)
The 12-tooth rear drive sprocket is visible here, along with details of the T91E3 track. The track was center guide, single pin, and featured rubber pads on both the road surface and the inner surface of the track.
The low weld line characteristic of later-production tanks is visible on this vehicle. The weld line must angle upwards to meet the bottom of the turret bustle instead of going straight across the turret at the bustle level. The row of small bolts near the front of the turret was for attaching a canvas gun mantlet cover, and the hook on the fender stowage box was to help hold the tow cable which was stowed on the tank's left side. The fourth driver's periscope is also visible.
The muzzle brake of this tank is the early cast variety. Just behind this is the bore evacuator for the 76mm gun.
The commander's and gunner's periscope guards dominate this view of the tank's roof. Mounts for the .50cal M2HB machine gun are positioned between the commander's cupola and gunner's periscope, and also to the left side of the TC's cupola. Later tanks moved the MG mount to a more serviceable position to the left front of the TC's cupola.
The opening for the loader's periscope is closest to the foreground in this image, and his hatch and hatch lock are visible as well. The commander's cupola was ringed at the bottom by five vision blocks facing to the sides and rear, and an M20 periscope provided forward view. The circular holes in the vehicle's roof were for antenna mounts, and the stowage brackets for the disassembled .50cal machine gun are also present on the roof.
At the very rear of the turret, behind the vehicle's radio set, was an air blower. This helped to exhaust any main gun propellant fumes that the bore evacuator did not take care of, and also those generated by the coaxial machine gun. Attached to the rear of the turret is a large stowage box, and a mount for a 5gal (19L) can is visible on each side of the turret.
This view shows the turret interior of the tank. The breech of the 76mm gun is on the right of the picture, and the commander's seat is visible to the rear. On the rear turret floor would normally be a spent cartridge bin for 76mm casings, but this has apparently been removed from this vehicle. (Note: If those are your pants, please email me; I have to hear this story.)
This tank is topped by an earlier-production turret with the characteristic high weld line that runs straight back to the turret bustle. The remains of the pipe for the auxiliary engine muffler can be seen snaking forward toward the front fender.