The riveted construction of the medium tank M3 is obvious here. This vehicle is not fitted with stabilization since it lacks counterweights on the 37mm or short 75mm M2 guns. The machine gun in the commander's cupola is present in its right aperture, and one of the driver's hull machine guns has been retained. Track grousers are stored in the box below the driver's hatch, and the tank's siren is positioned below the 75mm gun. Here the crew, Cpl. Larry Corletti, Pvt. Murril Chapman, and Pvt. Louis Robles, practice dismounting from a disabled vehicle. (Picture taken 12 Feb 1943 by Sgt. Calvano; available from the U.S. Army Center of Military History.)
The US version of the M3 kept the radio in the hull and featured a large machine gun cupola for the tank commander. The turret consequently had a short overhang, and the TC's cupola is very prominent. In this image, we are looking at the rear of the turret, and the cupola is rotated to almost 9 o'clock. A vision slot is open on the side of the cupola, and a ventilator is visible beside the cupola.
The front of the TC's cupola is shown here. The aperture for the .30cal machine gun is on the commander's right side, and a protectoscope was housed in the opposite opening. Below, the opening for the 37mm gunner's periscope M2 can be seen on the turret front.
This is a later-production vehicle, as indicated by the ventilators and the lack of side hull doors. The pistol ports and roof hatch over the 75mm gun sponson were retained, however. A stowage box is mounted on the rear deck.
The suspension on the M3 was based on that of the medium tank M2. This vehicle is not fitted with the later, heavy-duty volute springs that necessitated moving the track return roller to the rear of the assembly.
The different turret on this vehicle marks it as a British Grant I. The British did not use the turret machine gun cupola and placed a radio in the bustle of the turret of the Grant. The British turret was lower and wider as a consequence. This vehicle retains the hull side doors, but the hull machine gun ports have been plugged.
The profile view of the British turret shows the lengthened radio bustle at the rear.
The rear of the engine compartment can be seen here, including the rectangular exhaust pipes in the center, and the engine's air cleaners in each upper corner. Engine access was provided by the double doors, and the hole in the rear armor was for a hand starter crank. Taillight groups can be seen above the fenders. A pistol port is visible on the rank's right side, and an antenna mount is mounted on the opposite side of the vehicle.
Looking through the open starboard side door, the breech of the 75mm gun and the 75mm gunner's seat is visible. The driver's black padded seat is beyond the 75mm gunner's seat, and the 37mm turret shield is to the 75mm gunner's left rear.
A second view of the 75mm gun, including the gunner's periscope M1, is shown here. The piston for the gyrostabilizer is mounted to the right of the 75mm gun.
The short 75mm gun M2 is shown here with the parts of the gun mount labeled. (Picture from FM 23-95 75-mm Tank Gun M2 (Mounted in Medium Tank M3).)
The interior of the tank behind the 75mm gunner is shown here. The engine propeller shaft runs beneath the turret, and an oil cooler is attached to the bulkhead.
Looking beyond the 75mm gun, we can see the driver's controls and instrument panel. The steering levers are in front of his seat, and the white gear shift lever is to his right. The handwheel on the right of the image is for traversing the 75mm gun, and this handwheel also contained the solenoid firing button. The riveted construction of the vehicle is evident on the inside as well, and the rivets had the unfortunate tendency to break apart when hit and ricochet around the cramped interior of the vehicle.
This image is looking into the 37mm turret from the port hull side door. The traversing mechanism is on the turret floor, and 37mm ammunition racks line the turret walls. The tank commander's seat is at the top right corner of the picture, the 37mm loader's seat is directly across the turret, and the rear of the 37mm gunner's seat can be glimpsed to the left of the frame.
The turret crew's positions relative to each other can be better seen here. The gunner's elevation handwheel has a black handle and is positioned paralled to the 37mm gun, and the black gyrostabilizer control can be seen across the turret near the turret ring.
The opposite side of the turret is shown here. The cables hanging down in this image can be seen in the foreground of the picture above. (Picture from FM 23-81 37-mm Gun, Tank, M6 (Mounted in Tanks).)
Details of the commander's hatch are shown here. A rotatable periscope mount is allowing light through.
This cast, smooth-lined M3A1 is armed with the short-barreled 75mm gun M2, and since neither it nor the 37mm guns are fitted with counterweights, this tank also lacks stabilization. The holes can be seen for the hull-mounted machine guns. This tank also has the early suspension bogies which have the return roller on top of the brace. The aperture to the left of the 37mm gun was for the gunner's periscope. The machine gun in the cupola emerged from the right opening; the left was for a vision slot. There is a ventilator above the pistol port in the front of the hull, and there are antenna mounts behind the turret and behind the front hull pistol port. This tank is wearing the T48 rubber chevron tracks.
Most of the identifying features for M3A5 are on the rear of the vehicle, since the major difference between M3A5 and M3 is that the former is powered by twin diesel engines rather than the radial gasoline engine. This tank is not fitted with stabilization since it lacks counterweights under the 37mm gun and around the end of the short 75mm gun M2's barrel. It also is running on the T49 parallel bar steel tracks. (Picture from Development of Armored Vehicles, volume 1: Tanks.)
This is a 3/4 front view of the GM 6046 engine. The power from each engine was sent through its drive shaft and gear to a common driven gear which in turn drove the propellor shaft. The individual engines were designated model 671LA24M (right-side engine) and 671LC24M (left-side engine). The engine weight as installed was 4855lb (2202kg). (Picture from TM 9-1750G Ordnance Maintenance--General Motors Twin Diesel 6-71 Power Plant for Medium Tanks M3A3, M3A5, and M4A2.)
The legend for this cross-sectional view is as follows: 1. Oil cooler adapter. 2. Oil cooler. 3. Blower housing. 4. Blower rotors. 5. Air cleaner. 6. Secondary fuel filter. 7. Camshaft. 8. Rocker arm. 9. Injector. 10. Injector control rack tube lever. 11. Water outlet manifold. 12. Exhaust manifold. 13. Balancer shaft. 14. Valve rocker cover. 15. Push rod. 16. Section of piston and connecting rod. 17. Air box. 18. Solenoid air inlet control. 19. Air inlet housing. 20. Connecting rod bearing shell. 21. Crankshaft. 22. Main bearing shell. 23. Lubricating oil pump assembly. 24. Lubricating oil pump driven gear. 25. Air heater. 26. Air heater fuel pipe. 27. Clutch shift levers. (Picture from TM 9-1750G Ordnance Maintenance--General Motors Twin Diesel 6-71 Power Plant for Medium Tanks M3A3, M3A5, and M4A2.)
M3A3 was essentially an M3A5 with a welded rather than riveted hull. The sharp lines on the hull of this tank indicates that it has been welded rather than cast. (Picture from Development of Armored Vehicles, volume 1: Tanks.)
The large Chrysler multibank engine installed in M3A4 necessitated a longer hull to fit in the tank. The distance between the bogies was also therefore increased, and the rear deck roof and engine compartment floor had bulges to accomodate the A57 engine. (Picture from Development of Armored Vehicles, volume 1: Tanks.)
The legend for this cross-sectional view is as follows: A. Tube, water pump air relief (engine no. 1 to no. 2). B. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 1 engine). C. Cleaner, air, crankcase ventilator, assembly. D. Shaft, drive, tachometer. E. Pump, water, assembly (no. 1 to no. 5 engine). F. Tube, water pump air relief (no. 1 engine). G. Filter, oil (absorption type). H. Coil, igntion (no. 5 engine). I. Pipe, exhaust (nos. 4 and 5 engines). J. Tube, fuel pump to branch connection, assembly (for nos. 4 and 5 carburetors). K. Connection, water pump air relief tube. L. Pump, water, assembly (no. 5 engine). M. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 5 engine). N. Tube, water pump air relief (no. 4 to no. 5 engine). O. Tube, fuel pump to no. 1 carburetor, assembly. P. Plate, serial number, engine. Q. Pump, fuel, assembly. R. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 4 engine). S. Support, engine, rear. T. Pump, water, assembly (no. 4 engine). U. Tube, radiator outlet, assemblt (nos. 4 and 5 engines). V. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 4 engine). W. Pan, oil. X. Plug, drain, oil pan. Y. Tube, fuel pump to branch connection, assembly (for nos. 2 and 3 carburetors). Z. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 3 engine). AA. Pump, water, assembly (no. 3 engine). BB. Tube, radiator outlet, assembly (nos. 2 and 3 engines). CC. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 3 engine). DD. Cock, drain, cylinder water jacket, assembly. EE. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 2 engine). FF. Tube, water pump air relief (no. 2 to no. 3 engine). GG. Pump, water, assembly (no. 2 engine). HH. Coil, ignition, assembly (no. 2 engine). II. Distributor, ignition, assembly (no. 1 engine). JJ. Generator, assembly. KK. Pipe, exhaust (nos. 1, 2, and 3 engines). (Picture from TM 9-1750F Ordnance Maintenance--Power Unit for Medium Tanks M3A4 and M4A4.)
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