105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

This early tank features the track retaining ring on the rear drive sprocket and the original rear track skirt. This design allowed dirt to build up underneath and resulted in thrown tracks, so it was redesigned to incorporate a notch around the drive sprocket. The rear of the turret was ringed with tie downs for external stowage; this was also replaced later with a stowage rack in the rear. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The extreme slope of the tank's glacis forced the driver to sit in a reclined position. Details of the 105mm gun mount are also visible, including the aperture for the gunner's auxiliary sight on the bottom and the base of the barrel shroud for the 7.62mm coaxial MG directly above this. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

Details of the crosswind sensor and its mounting can be seen in this image. Note the hinge at the base to allow it to be folded over when not in use. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The crew hatches are open on this tank, and the roof machine guns are mounted. The loader's weapon is mounted on a skate rail and the empty ammo box cradle is on the gun's left, while the commander's MG was fired from under armor. It was elevated manually, but traversed electrically. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

A close-up of the track retaining ring is offered in this photo. During tests, tanks tended to shed tracks at the sprocket due to dirt buildup and quick turns. Fixes for this problem included the track retaining ring, increasing track tension, a mud scraper for the drive sprocket and a sprocket hub with mud chute cutouts, and and steel plates welded to the hull to keep the tracks aligned and to prevent tracks from coming off to the inside. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

Details of the tracks and rear road wheel can be seen here. The outer hubs of the road wheels are clear plastic, which facilitates checking the lubricant level. The drive sprocket teeth can just be seen behind the track retaining ring. Note the compression of the rubber pad of the track block under the road wheel. (Photo by Richard S. Eshleman.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

This tank features the track retaining ring on the rear drive sprocket, but has the newer notched rear skirt design that helped prevent dirt buildup. The T156 track with integral rubber pads are on this tank. There are antenna mounts on the rear corners of the turret, and the crosswind sensor is folded over in the middle of the turret bustle's rear. (Picture taken 15 Aug 1984 by SPC5 Vincent Kitts; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The shape of the front turret and size of the main gun on this tank can easily be contrasted with the 120mm gun tanks below. (Picture taken 1 Jan 1983; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

This image details where the special armor arrays were arranged: the forward armor skirts, turret front and sides, and the lower hull front. (Picture from "Special Armor Security Classification Guide.")

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The structure of the gun shield is diagrammed here. The internal diagonal plates would offer some movement when struck, helping to destabilize and break up incoming projectiles. (Picture from "Special Armor Security Classification Guide;" sanitized for release on 2014/03/04.)

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The hull front armor array differs in detail from the gun shield, but functions in a similar manner. (Picture from "Special Armor Security Classification Guide.")

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The turret sides were also protected by a composite armor array. (Picture from "Special Armor Security Classification Guide.")

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams.

The forward ballistic skirts are cross-sectioned in this sketch. (Picture from "Special Armor Security Classification Guide.")

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105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams, Improved Performance.

The detachable stowage rack introduced on the IPM1 can be contrasted with the original bustle tie-downs on the tank at the top of the page. (Picture taken 1 Jan 1987 by MSG William B. Belcher; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams in Iraq.

The larger main gun marks this vehicle as an M1A1. The vent for the overpressure NBC system can be seen above the number 5 track skirt. The smoke grenade launchers have been changed by the US Marines from those typically used by the Army, and an external auxiliary power unit is visible in the turret bustle stowage basket. (Picture taken 1 Apr 2003 by CPL Mace M. Gratz; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams in Baghdad.

The discolored grille on the rear hull of this tank is the engine exhaust, and visible surrounding it is a mounting bracket with holes for attaching a fording stack. The other two grilles are for engine and transmission oil cooling. The tank commander is CPT William T. Cundy. (Picture taken 13 Nov 2003 by TSGT John L. Houghton, Jr.; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The Abrams tank was fitted with a six-barrel smoke grenade launcher on each side of the turret. These could be fired individually or both at once.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The rear deck of the M1A1 features engine air inlet grilles and various access hatches.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The turret bustle features blowoff panels over the ammunition stowage, so that if an ammunition explosion occurs, the energy and gases will be dispersed into the atmosphere instead of into the crew compartment. The tank's crosswind sensor is visible in the lower right corner of this picture.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The device on the end of the gun tube is the vehicle's muzzle reference system. This allows the gunner and ballistic computer to account for droop in the main gun's barrel caused by uneven heating. The thermal shroud on the barrel was intended to help alleviate this problem.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The gunner's primary sight was located in an armored "doghouse" on the turret roof. The daylight sight, TIS, and laser rangefinder were all located in the doghouse, and armored shutters protected the optics while not in use.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The coaxial machine gun on the Abrams was provided with a flash-suppressing barrel shroud.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The loader was provided with a hatch in the turret roof across from the TC, and a periscope was installed in his hatch door.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The TC's position was ringed with six vision blocks, as well as the sight for the .50cal machine gun. The cupola hatch door could also be positioned so that it provided overhead protection while still allowing the TC outside vision.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

This view into the turret shows the gunner's seat, and just to its left, the breech for the 120mm main gun. The gunner was provided with a chest support, and it is folded off to the right. The coaxial machine gun's ready ammunition box is labeled, and the belt of ammo would snake across the top of the main gun's breech.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The opposite side of the turret interior is shown here. The loader's seat is visible, as is the vehicle's radio setup behind the padded shoulder guard. When in action, the shoulder guard would be swung down to protect the loader from the recoil of the main gun. Below the radio is stowage for field boxes of 7.62mm ammunition.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The ready rack of 120mm ammunition is shown here. The turret bustle ammunition is placed behind blast doors, so that if there is an ammunition detonation, the roof blowoff panels will vent the blast away from the crew compartment. There is a semi-ready rack behind the commander's position, and rounds are transferred to the ready rack as it is depleted and as time allows.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The loader's control panel is shown here, and would give indications of the main gun's status as well as operate the turret ventilation blower and turret drive. A blue night light is visible towards the top of the image.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The bustle ammunition blast doors were operated by this padded kneeswitch.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

A look at the gunner's position is provided here. The chest support is folded out of the way, and a kneepad is provided on the turret basket. The red handle is the main gun's manual firing handle, and just above that is the gunner's auxiliary sighting telescope.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

This image provides a close look at the gunner's control cadillacs. The large switches on the front of the handles are the palm switches to engage the tank's stabilization system, the thumb buttons are for firing the laser rangefinder, and the index triggers are for firing the weapons.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The gunner's control panel is shown here. His primary sight and its browpad can be seen at the top of the picture.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The TC was able to see what the gunner was looking at via the gunner's primary sight extension. The gunner's controls are visible low in the background, and above those are the handles that open and close the armored shutters for the gunner's primary sight.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The .50cal machine gun cupola was traversed electrically, and the traverse control handle is shown here. The TC had to elevate the machine gun manually with another handwheel.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The tank commander was provided with a turret control handle as well, and could override the gunner's inputs if necessary. The TC's override was equipped with triggers for the laser rangefinder and weapons, so the TC could fight the tank if the need arose. The gunner's chest support is visible near the bottom of the picture.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The TC's control panel is shown in this image.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The driver's instrument panel is shown here.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The driver's master panel is on his right side.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

The driver controlled throttle and steering with a motorcycle-style T-bar. Throttle was controlled by twisting the handle, and therfore an accelerator pedal was not needed. The transmission selector is placed below the T-bar, and the black parking brake release handle is to the driver's right.

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams in Iraq.

This tank is fitted with several features from the TUSK I upgrade kit. Present are the shields for the TC and loader as well as the TC's thermal .50cal sight, the mount for a .50cal MG over the gun mantlet (the Counter Sniper/Antimaterial Mount; CSAMM), explosive reactive armor tiles on the side skirts, and the V-shaped armor applique on the hull bottom. This tank belonged to Delta Company, 3rd Battalion, 69th Armored Regiment, 1st Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, and was being used to train Iraqi tankers in Joint Security Station Al Rashid, Iraq. The box with the pyramidal top attached to the gunner's primary sight housing is the antenna for the Blue Force Tracker system. (Picture taken 15 Jul 2010 by SPC Gary Silverman; available from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams in Iraq.

A better view of the CSAMM mount and its attachment to the gun mantlet is provided here. This tank has also been fitted with the TC's and loader's shields and the TC's thermal sight on his .50cal mount. In this image, SGT Anthony Ciofalo of Delta Company, 3rd Battalion, 69th Armored Regiment, 1st Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division is instructing an Iraqi soldier on driving the tank in Joint Security Station Al Rashid. (Picture taken 15 Jul 2010 by SPC Gary Silverman; available from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A2 Abrams in Biaj, Iraq.

The commander's independent thermal viewer can be seen in front of the loader's position on this vehicle, and it is aimed to the tank's right. A tow bar is stowed on the tank's bow. (Picture taken 26 Jan 2006 by SSG Aaron D. Allmon, II; available from the Defense Visual Information Center.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A2 Abrams in Iraq.

Features of the TUSK kit present on this tank include explosive reactive armor tiles on the side skirts, shields around the loader's and TC's position, and the CSAMM mount. The .50cal MG has a front shield as well as the armor enclosing the sides and rear. The large antenna at the rear of the turret bustle is part of the AN/ULQ-35 Counter Remote Controlled Improvised Explosive Device (RCIED) Electronic Warfare (CREW) Duke IED jammer system. This tank belonged to Company D, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Advise and Assist Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, and was training on Memorial Range near Contingency Operating Base Speicher. (Picture taken 27 Jul 2011 by SGT Quentin Johnson; available from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A2 Abrams in Iraq.

Further details of the shielding around the TC's position can be seen here. These men were with Troop A, 1st Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, and were training on the Besmaya Combat Training Center range near Baghdad. (Picture taken 9 Jan 2011 by SSG Garrett Ralston; available from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A2 SEP V2 Abrams at the Joint Multinational Readiness Training Center in Hohenfels, Germany.

The very tall common remotely operated weapon system (CROWS) has been mounted on this tank. It provides the commander with a thermal viewer, laser rangefinder, and a mount for the .50cal machine gun that can be operated from under armor. The loader's MG is not present, but he has been provided with armored shields. Instead, he is wielding a carbine with a blank adapter. The TC is LTC Carter Price, commander of 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. They were taking part in Operation Combined Resolve II. (Picture taken 25 May 2014 by PFC Daniel Lograsso; available from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System.)

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120mm Gun Tank M1A2 SEP V2 Abrams.

The mount of the CROWS encompasses the gunner's primary sight enclosure. Forward vision for the TC is affected, as can be seen here. The T-shaped antenna to the crosswind sensor's right in the turret bustle rack was for the CREW IED jammer system. The green box with the light top in front of the CREW antenna is the antenna for the Blue Force Tracker system. This tank belongs to D Company, 3rd Battalion, 69th Armor Regiment, 1st Armor Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division and was taking part in exercise Heidesturm Shock. (Picture taken 6 Jun 2015 by Markus Rauchenberger; available from the Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System.)

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Last updated 22 Jan 2017.
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© Copyright 2007-17 Chris Conners